Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Articoli/Articles

Vol. 12 No. 1 (2021): Pedagogia Speciale tra Formazione e Ricerca ai tempi della pandemia

Inclusion in university contexts and the role of internships in the education of students with disabilities: Critical issues, perspectives and good practices

DOI
https://doi.org/10.3280/ess1-2021oa11912
Submitted
May 17, 2021
Published
2021-06-28

Abstract

The topic of university inclusion is today at the centre of the international and national debate. The reasons are related to a significant increase in the number of students with disabilities enrolled in university, as shown by the first report “Disability, Dsa and access to university education”, presented these days by ANVUR (Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of the University system and Research) and CNUDD (National Conference of University Delegates for Disability). From this report, several steps forward for the inclusion of university students emerge, but also several critical dimensions that still require the attention of research and academic policies. This article will examine this issue and focus on exploring one of the critical nodes of university inclusion, namely the role of internships in the educational experience of students with disabilities and in their life project.

A growing literature has explored their academic experience; on the contrary, there is little research to date that explores the issues and challenges of a central aspect of the higher education and training pathway, namely internships.

Completing the study pathway in higher education is identified as a factor that can impact increasing the social and employment inclusion of people with disabilities (Union of Equality Strategy for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) and consequent improvement of levels of Quality of Life (Giaconi, 2015). However, one of the main obstacles to obtaining a qualification is the accessibility of internships.

This article addresses the meaning and implications of internships for competences’ building and insertion into the labour market of disabled graduates. Therefore, it explores the state of play of research, identifies the most critical issues, and reports about the running debate in the field.

References

  1. Andrews J. and Higson H. (2008). Graduate Employability, ‘Soft Skills’ Versus ‘Hard’ Business Knowledge: A European Study. Higher Education in Europe, 33(4): 411-422. DOI: 10.1080/03797720802522627.
  2. Atkinson G. (2016). Work-based learning and work-integrated learning: Fostering engagement with employers, Adelaide: NCVER.
  3. Aune B. (2000). Career and academic advising. In H. Belch (Ed.). Serving students with disabilities. New Directions in Student Services, No. 91, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. doi: 10.1002/ss.9105.
  4. Bocci F., Cajola L. C., and Zucca S. (2020). Gli studenti con disabilità e con DSA presso l’Università Roma Tre. Questioni e considerazioni a margine di una indagine esplorativa. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION FOR INCLUSION, 8(2): 126-146.
  5. Bonaccio S., Connelly C.E., Gellatly I.R., Jetha A. and Martin Ginis K.A. (2020). The Participation of People with Disabilities in the Workplace Across the Employment Cycle: Employer Concerns and Research Evidence. Journal of Business and Psychology, 35: 135-158. Doi: 10.1007/s10869-018-9602-5.
  6. Bortolotti E., Sorzio P. (2014). Osservare per includere. Metodi di intervento nei contesti socio-educativi. Roma: Carrocci.
  7. Bricout J. C., and Bentley K. J. (2000). Disability status and perceptions of employability by employers. Social Work Research, 24(2): 87-95. doi: 10.1093/swr/24.2.87.
  8. Briel L. and Getzel E. (2001). Internships in higher education: Promoting success for students with disabilities. Disability Studies Quarterly, 21(1).
  9. Brookfield S. (1995). Adult learning: an overview. In: Tuinjman, A. (Ed.). International Encyclopedia of Adult Education and Training. Tarrytown, NY: Elsevier Science, 375-380.
  10. Brunello G. and Wruuck P. (2019). Skill Shortages and Skill Mismatch in Europe: A Review of the Literature. IZA Discussion Papers No. 12346, Bonn, DE: IZA Institute of Labor Economics.
  11. Buckley G. (2019). Inclusive Perspective and Inclusion Practices. The National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTDI): A model of Inclusive Practices for Deaf Students. In: Del Bianco N., D’Angelo I., a cura di. Inclusion in the University. Studies and Practices.Milano: FrancoAngeli, pp. 117-124.
  12. Burgstahler S. (N/A). Equal Access: Universal Design of Career Services, DO-IT programme, University of Washington.
  13. Caldin R. (2017). Gli studenti universitari tra formazione e ricerca. Il contributo della didattica alle professioni educative, nei processi inclusivi. Pedagogia Oggi, 2: 187-197.
  14. Caldin R., and Scollo S. (2018). Inclusione lavorativa, disabilità e identità. Riflessioni e rappresentazioni. STUDIUM EDUCATIONIS-Rivista quadrimestrale per le professioni educative, (3): 49-60.
  15. Chartered Association of Business Schools (2014). 21st century leaders building practice into the curriculum to boost employability. Retrieved May 22, 2017, from http://www.associationofbusinessschools.org/sites/default/files/21st_century_leaders_june2014_-_final_report.pdf.
  16. Chi C. G., and Qu H. (2005). A Study of Differential Employers’ Attitude Towards Hiring People with Physical, Mental, and Sensory Disabilities in Restaurant Industry. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism, 3(2): 1-31. doi: 10.1300/j171v03n0201.
  17. CNUDD (2014). Conferenza Nazionale Universitaria Delegati per la Disabilità. Linee guida. https://www.crui.it/cnudd.html.
  18. Cook S. J., Parker R. S., and Pettjohn C. E. (2004). The perceptions of interns: A longitudinal case study. Journal of Education for Business, 79(3): 179-185.
  19. Cordero J., Ortiz de Zúñiga T., and Rueda M. (2014). Disability and corporate social responsibility reporting: An analysis comparing reporting practices of 40 selected multinational enterprises. International Labour Office, Bureau of Employers’ Activities, Conditions of Work and Equality Department. – Geneva: ILO, 2014 (Working paper; No. 8).
  20. d’Alonzo L., and Carruba M. C. (2016). Il docente inclusivo in Università: fra presenza, spazi e comunicazione.
  21. D’Angelo I. and Del Bianco N. (a cura di) (2019). Inclusion at the University. Studies and Practices. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  22. Del Bianco N. (2019). Autodeterminazione nelle persone con disabilità intellettive. Studi, ricerche e questioni di pedagogia speciale. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  23. Del Bianco N., Paviotti G., Perry V., Giaconi C. (2020). Inclusive processes at the University during Covid-19 time: strategic guidelines and case studies from the Inclusion Project 3.0. Nuova secondaria, 2: 511-529.
  24. Demetriou C., Miller G. E., Mason L.G., Salvesen C. L. (2019). A Model Program for the Success of College Students with Attention and Learning Disorders. In: D’Angelo I., Del Bianco N., a cura di. Inclusion in the University. Studies and Practices. Milano: FrancoAngeli, pp. 87-106.
  25. Divine Richard L., JoAnn K. Linrud, Robert H. Miller, and J. Holton Wilson (2007). Required Internship Programs in Marketing: Benefits, Challenges and Determinants of Fit. Marketing Education Review, 17(2): 45-52.
  26. Domzal C., Houtenville A., and Sharma R. (2008). Survey of employer perspectives on the employment of people with disabilities: Technical report. In: Prepared under contract to the Office of Disability and Employment Policy. U.S. Department of Labor. McLean, VA: CESSI.
  27. dos Santos B., Portes de Cerqueira César, Capellini S.A., Del Bianco N. (2019). Survey of complaints and behaviors of students with learning problems. Investigation Learning Disabilities Laboratory. In: D’Angelo I., Del Bianco N., a cura di. Inclusion in the University. Studies and Practices. Milano: FrancoAngeli, pp.107-116.
  28. Dowrick P. W., Getzel E. E., and Briel L. W. (2004). Case studies that illustrate achieving career success in postsecondary education through self-determination and problem-solving skills. Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, 1(2): 195-202.
  29. Elarde J. V., and Chong F.-F. (2012). The pedagogical value of “eduployment.” Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference on Information Technology Education - SIGITE ’12. doi: 10.1145/2380552.2380607.
  30. Espada-Chavarria R., Moreno-Rodriguez R. and Jenaro C. (2020). Development of Vocational Maturity in University Students with Disabilities to Access, Obtain an Internship and Complete University Studies. Education in Sciences, 10(12): 386.
  31. EURES (2015). Traineeship, internship, apprenticeship: which one is for you? https://ec.europa.eu/eures/public/newsarticles//asset_publisher/L2ZVYxNxK11W/content/traineeship-internship-apprenticeship-which-one-is-for-you?_101_INSTANCE_L2ZVYxNxK11W_backLabelKey=news.articles.back.tolistand_101_INSTANCE_L2ZVYxNxK11W_showAssetFooter=true (Accessed on 11.04.2021).
  32. Eurostat (2018). Disability statistics - labour market access. Last update 31/10/2018. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php?title=Archive:Disability_statistics_-_labour_market_accessandoldid=411116 Retrieved 20/04/2021.
  33. Fleming R. (1999). A fresh perspective on old problems. IEEE Software, January-February.
  34. Galloway L., Marks A., and Chillas S. (2014). The use of internships to foster employability, enterprise and entrepreneurship in the IT sector. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 21(4): 653-667. Doi: 10.1108/JSBED-09-2014-0150.
  35. Gault J., Leach E. and Duey M. (2010). Effects of business internships on job marketability: the employers’ perspective. Education + Training, 52(1): 76-88. Doi: 10.1108/00400911011017690.
  36. Gerken M., Rienties B., Giesbers B. and Köning K.D. (2012). Enhancing the Academic Internship Learning Experience for Business Education – A Critical Review and Future Directions. In P. Van den Bossche et al. (eds.). Learning at the Crossroads of Theory and Practice, 7, Advances in Business Education and Training 4. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2846-2_2.
  37. Giaconi C., Capellini S. A., Del Bianco N., D’Angelo I. (in press). La pedagogia speciale “incontra” le famiglie con figli con disabilità complesse. In: Caldin R., Giaconi C. a cura di, Disabilità e cicli di vita. Le famiglie tra seduttivi immaginari e plausibili realtà. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  38. Giaconi C. (2015). Qualità della Vita e adulti con disabilità. Percorsi di ricerca e prospettive inclusive. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  39. Giaconi C., Del Bianco N. (2018). Didattica universitaria e dispositivi tecnologici inclusivi: il progetto Inclusione 3.0. In C. Giaconi, N. Del Bianco, a cura di. In Azione: prove di Inclusione. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  40. Giaconi C., Del Bianco N., Taddei A., Capellini S. A. (2018). Inclusive University didactics and technological devices: a case study. Education Science and Society, 9(1): 191-217.
  41. Giaconi C., Capellini S. A., Del Bianco N., Taddei A. and D'Angelo I. (2019). Study Empowerment for inclusion. Education Sciences and Society-Open Access, 9(2): 166-183.
  42. Giaconi C., Socci C., Fidanza B., Del Bianco N., D’Angelo I., and Capellini S. A. (2020). Il Dopo di Noi: nuove alleanze tra pedagogia speciale ed economia per nuovi spazi di Qualità di Vita. MeTis-Mondi educativi. Temi indagini suggestioni, 10(2): 274-291.
  43. Giaconi C., Taddei A., Del Bianco N., and Capellini S. A. (2018). Inclusive University didactics and technological devices: a case study. Education Sciences and Society-Open Access, 9(1): 191-217.
  44. Gould R., Parker Harris S., Mullin C. and Jones R. (2020). Disability, diversity, and corporate social responsibility: Learning from recognised leaders in inclusion. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 52: 29-42. DOI:10.3233/JVR-191058.
  45. Greenwood R. and Johnson V.A. (1987). Employer perspectives on workers with disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 53: 37-45.
  46. Holyoak L. (2013). Are all internships beneficial learning experiences? An exploratory study. Education + Training, 55(6): 573-583. DOI: 10.1108/ET-02-2012-0024.
  47. ILO – International Labour Office (2018). The regulation of internships: A comparative study. EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 240, Geneva - International Labour Organization.
  48. Ismail Z. (2018). Benefits of Internships for Interns and Host Organisations. K4D Helpdesk Report. Birmingham UK: University of Birmingham.
  49. Jackson D. and Bridgstock, R. (2020). What actually works to enhance graduate employability? The relative value of curricular, co-curricular, and extracurricular learning and paid work. Higher Education, 6. DOI: 10.1007/s10734-020-00570-x.
  50. Jackson D. (2018). Developing pre-professional identity in undergraduates through work-integrated learning. Higher Education, 74: 833-853. Doi: 10.1007/s10734-016-0080-2.
  51. Jenkins H. (2006). Small business champions for corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 67(3): 241-256.
  52. Kocman A., Fischer L. and Weber G. (2017). The Employers’ perspective on barriers and facilitators to employment of people with intellectual disability: A differential mixed-method approach. Journal of Applied Research on Intellectual Disability, 31: 120-131
  53. Kolb D.A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  54. Korte R.F. (2009). How newcomers learn the social norms of an organisation: a case study of the socialisation of newly hired engineers. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 20(3): 285-306.
  55. Kreider B. and Pepper, J.V. (2007). Disability and Employment, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 102: 432-441. DOI: 10.1198/016214506000000997.
  56. Louvet E., Rohmer O. and Dubois N. (2009). Social Judgment of people with a disability in the workplace: how to make a good impression on Employers. Swiss Journal of psychology, 68:153-159.
  57. Maertz C., Stoeberl P., and Marks J. (2014). Building successful internships: lessons from the research for interns, schools, and employers. Career Development International, 19(1): 123-142. Doi: 10.1108/CDI-03-2013-0025.
  58. McGuinness S., Pouliakas K., and Redmond P. (2018). Skills mismatch: concepts, measurement and policy approaches. Journal of Economic Surveys, 32(4): 985-1015. doi: 10.1111/joes.12254.
  59. Müller W. and Gangl M. (2003). Transitions from Education to Work in Europe: The Integration of Youth into EU Labour Markets. Oxford Scholarship Online. Oxford, UK: OUP. DOI: 10.1093/0199252475.001.0001.
  60. Nolan C., Gleeson C., Treanor D., and Madigan S. (2015). Higher education students registered with disability services and practice educators: issues and concerns for professional placements. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 19(5): 487-502.
  61. Nolan C. and Gleeson C.I. (2016). The transition to employment: the perspectives of students and graduates with disabilities. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 19(3): 230-244. DOI: 10.1080/15017419.2016.1240102.
  62. Optiz D.L. and Block L.S (2008). Universal Learning support design: Maximizing Learning Beyond the Classroom. In: Higbee J.L. and Goff E. (Eds.).Pedagogy and Student Services for Institutional Transformation. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN: Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy, College of Education and Human Development.
  63. Pace S., Pavone M. and Petrini D. (2018). Universal inclusion. Rights and Opportunities for Students with Disabilities in the Academic Context. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  64. Pavone M. (2015). Tecnologie e disabilità in università. Accessibilità, personalizzazione, inclusione. L’integrazione scolastica e sociale, 14(4): 336-338.
  65. Pavone, M. (2017). Diritto allo studio e inclusione di studenti con disabilità e con DSA in Università. In: R. Sante Di Pol & C. Coggi (Eds.). La Scuola e l’Università tra passato e presente. Milano: FrancoAngeli: 241-255.
  66. Raelin J. A. (1997). A Model of Work-Based Learning. Organization Science, 8(6): 563-578. doi: 10.1287/orsc.8.6.563.
  67. Riesen T., and Oertle K. M. (2019). Developing Work-based Learning Experiences for Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Preliminary Study of Employers' Perspectives. Journal of Rehabilitation, 85(2).
  68. Rigsby J.T., Addy N., Herring C. and Polledo D. (2013). An examination of internship and job opportunities. The Journal of Applied Business Research, 29(4): 1131-1144.
  69. Rowe L., Moss D. and Moore N. (2018). Effective Management of the Tripartite Relationship of Educational Providers, Participants and Employers in Work Based Learning. In: D. A. Morley (ed.). Enhancing Employability in Higher Education through Work Based Learning. Charm, Swizerland: Palgrave McMillan.
  70. Saniter N., and Siedler T. (2014). Door Opener or Waste of Time? The Effects of Student Internships on Labor Market Outcomes. IZA Discussion Papers 8141, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). http://ftp.iza.org/dp8141.pdf (retrieved April 17, 2021).
  71. Simonsen M., Fabian E. and Luecking R.G. (2015). Employer Preferences in Hiring Youth with Disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation; 81(1): 9-18.
  72. Spence L.J. (2007). CSR and small business in a European policy context: the five ‘C’s of CSR and small business research agenda 2007. Business and Society Review, 112(4): 533-552.
  73. Swanson S. R., and Tomkovick C. (2011). Perspectives from Marketing Internship Providers. Marketing Education Review, 21(2): 163-176. doi: 10.2753/mer1052-8008210206.
  74. Thompson, D. (2014). The thing employers look for when hiring recent graduates. The Atlantic, Retrieved from: http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2014/08/the-thing-employers-lookfor-when-hiring-recent-graduates/378693/, (accessed April 30, 2021).
  75. Toncar M. F. and Cudmore B. V. (2000). The Overseas Internship Experience. Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (1): 54-63.
  76. Tovey J. (2001). Building Connections between Industry and University: Implementing an Internship Program at a Regional University. Technical Communication Quarterly, 10(2): 225-239. DOI: 10.1207/s15427625tcq1002_7.
  77. Vélez G. S., and Giner G. R. (2015). Effects of Business Internships on Students, Employers, and Higher Education Institutions: A Systematic Review. Journal of Employment Counseling, 52(3): 121-130. DOI: 10.1002/joec.12010.
  78. Woodhams C. and Danieli A. (2000). Disability and diversity – a difference too far? Personnel Review, 29(3): 402-417.
  79. Zappaterra T. (2012). Disabilità e lavoro. Costruzione identitaria ed esercizio di cittadinanza. In: Boffo V., Falconi S., Zappaterra T., a cura di. Per una formazione al lavoro. Le sfide della disabilità adulta. Firenze University Press, Firenze, 17-43.
  80. Zehr S.M. and Korte R. (2020). Student internship experiences: learning about the workplace. Education + Training, 62 (3): 311-324.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>