Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Articles/Articoli

Vol. 14 No. 1 (2023): University didactics, innovation and inclusion. Assessment and feedback

Improving higher education teaching with feedback of eye tracking glasses: An international and interdisciplinary study

DOI
https://doi.org/10.3280/ess1-2023oa15293
Submitted
January 24, 2023
Published
2023-07-21

Abstract

The paper describes the purpose and the methods of the international project “Teaching in Higher Education Effectively via Eye-tracking” (THEE) and summarizes its findings. The project studied the eye movements of higher education teachers and students to reflect on how to improve the teaching-learning process. The participants were four professors and twelve students who wore eye tracking glasses during the lessons. The results of the study demonstrate a clear benefit of the approach based on collecting eye tracking data and teachers’ self-reflection on their own classroom practice. Concerning the analysis of gaze location and teachers and students’ behaviour, we noticed that the teachers looked mostly at the centre of the classroom and that the duration of the fixations depends on the size of the classroom and the type of subjects. Moreover, the teachers of scientific subjects seem to change their fixation duration distribution over the lessons analysed while the humanities lecturers appeared more static. The analyses also highlighted that the teachers of humanities subjects were found to be very focused on the cognitive processes, while teachers of scientific subjects were attentive to the way they can involve students in learning. On the other hand, students of the humanities mainly highlighted some operational factors related to the teacher’s lesson and to their own subsequent study, whereas students of scientific subjects seemed to show more attention to the factors related to the lesson and to activities carried out in the classroom.

References

  1. Attualità pedagogiche, from 2019 to 2022. Scientific journal of the University of Salerno. Available from: http://www.attualitapedagogiche.it/.
  2. Bellantoni L., Lombardi M.G. (2020). Relazione educativa e professionalità docente. Linee guida per l’autoformazione e l’empowerment. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  3. Dagienė V., Jasutė E. and Dolgopolovas V. (2021). Professional Development of In-Service Teachers: Use of Eye Tracking for Language Classes, Case Study. Sustainability, 13(22): 1-24.
  4. Faiella F., Mannese E., Savarese G., Plutino A. and Lombardi M.G. (2019). Eye-tracking glasses for improving teacher education: the e-Teach project. Research on Education and Media, 11(1): 85-92. DOI: 10.2478/rem-2019-0012.
  5. Halszka J., Holmqvist K. and Gruber H. (2017). Eye tracking in Educational Science: Theoretical frameworks and research agendas. Journal of eye movement research, 10(1): 1-18.
  6. Henning E., Van Rensburg W. and Smit B. (2004). Finding your way in qualitative research. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
  7. Huang Y., Miller K., Cortina K.S. and Richter D. (2021). Teachers’ professional vision in action: Comparing expert and novice teacher’s real-life eye movements in the classroom. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 37(1-2): 1-18.
  8. Jarodzka H., Skuballa I. and Gruber H. (2021). Eye-tracking in educational practice: Investigating visual perception underlying teaching and learning in the classroom. Educational Psychology Review, 33(1): 1-10.
  9. Lai M. L., Tsai M. J., Yang F. Y., Hsu C. Y., Liu T. C., Lee S. W. Y., ... and Tsai C. C. (2013). A review of using eye-tracking technology in exploring learning from 2000 to 2012. Educational research review, 10: 90-115.
  10. Kaakinen J.K. (2021). What Can Eye Movements Tell us about Visual Perception Processes in Classroom Contexts? Commentary on a Special Issue. Educational Psychology Review, 33: 169-179.
  11. Mannese E. (2016). Saggio breve per le nuove sfide educative. Lecce: Pensa Multimedia.
  12. Mannese E. (2019). L’orientamento efficace. Per una pedagogia del lavoro e delle organizzazioni. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  13. Massa R. (1992). La clinica della formazione. Un’esperienza di ricerca. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  14. Minarikova E., Smidekova Z., Janik M. and Holmqvist K. (2021). Teachers’ Professional Vision: Teachers’ Gaze During the Act of Teaching and After the Event. Front. Educ, 6, 716579.
  15. Mortari L. (2019). Aver cura di sé. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.
  16. Savarese G., Stornaiuolo G., Faiella F., Mannese E., Plutino A. and Lombardi M.G. (2020). Percezione e rappresentazione sull’uso delle tecnologie digitali in docenti esperti e novizi: analisi del contenuto delle interviste. In: G., Cecchinato, V., Grion (a cura di). Dalle Teaching Machines al Machine Learning (pp. 223-233). Padova: Padova University Press.
  17. Rahal R., Fiedler S. (2019). Understanding cognitive and affective mechanisms in social psychology through eye-tracking. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 85: 1-14.
  18. Rayner K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124(3): 372-422.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...