Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Regular Articles

Vol. 22 No. 3 (2020)

Preserving the Existence of Subak in Bali: The Role of Social, Cultural, and Economic Agencies

April 12, 2020


This study focuses on the existence of Subak in Bali as a form of agricultural local wisdom that needs preserving and protecting. This study was conducted in Jatiluwih Subak in Tabanan Regency – Bali as an icon of the World Cultural Heritage. The analysis relied on the mixed-method approach, with 94 farmers as the research respondents. Findings from this study demonstrate that only some farmers understood Subak’s status as the World Cultural Heritage. In addition, most of them did not plan to sell their agricultural lands because those lands were inherited from their ancestors that need preserving and inheriting their offspring. Subak, as a customary institution, plays a dominant roles socially, culturally, and economically in preserving well-functioning Subak. However, the government’s supports are still crucial in preserving Subak to remain as a World Cultural Heritage.


  1. Ardiansyah, M. & Susilowati, I. (2019). Estimating the conservation value of mangrove forests in marine protected areas: special reference to Karimunjawa waters, Indonesia. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation, 12(2), 437-447.
  2. Arnawa, I.K. (2011). Kajian Tentang Pelestarian Subak Ditinjau Dari Aktivitasnya Yang Berlandaskan Konsep Tri Hita Karana. Jurnal Agrimeta, 1(1).
  3. Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Bali (2020). Luas Lahan Per Kabupaten/Kota Menurut Penggunaannya di Provinsi Bali, 2017 Area of Land by Regency/Municipality and Type of Use in Bali Province, 2017.
  4. Birkelbach, A.W. (1973). The subak association. Indonesia, (16), 153-169.
  5. Creswell, J.W. (2009). Mapping the field of mixed methods research, 95-108.
  6. Fatmasari, D., Waridin, W. & Kurnia, A. S. (2020). Technical analysis and values of Fathonah, Amanah, Shidiq and Tabligh (Fast) in production factors management. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 9(2), 693-704.
  7. Indrawardana, I. (2013). Kearifan Lokal Adat Masyarakat Sunda Dalam Hubungan Dengan Lingkungan Alam. Komunitas: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture, 4(1), 1-8, doi: 10.15294/komunitas.v4i1.2390.
  8. Jansing, M.S., Mahichi, F. & Dasanayake, R. (2020). Sustainable irrigation management in paddy rice agriculture: A comparative case study of Karangasem Indonesia and Kunisaki Japan. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(3), doi: 10.3390/su12031180.
  9. Kuasa, W., Rianse, U., Widayati, W., Sidu, D., Gusmiarty Abdullah, W., Zulfikar, L., Syukur, O. & Sarimustaqiyma Rianse, I. (2015). Local Wisdom of Farmers in Meeting of Local Food. International Journal of Sustainable Tropical Agricultural Sciences, 2(1), 243296.
  10. Lee, A. (2011). On Tourist Satisfaction with Cultural Heritage Site – A Case Study of the Malacca State, p. 167. --
  11. Marzuki, A. (2011). Resident Attitudes Towards Impacts from Tourism Development in Langkawi Islands. Malaysia, 12, 25-34.
  12. Niswatin, N. & Mahdalena, M. (2016). Nilai Kearifan Lokal “Subak” Sebagai Modal Sosial Transmigran Etnis Bali. Jurnal Akuntansi Multiparadigma, (6), 171-188, doi: 10.18202/jamal.2016.08.7015.
  13. Paster, E. (2004). Preservation of agricultural lands through land use planning tools and techniques. Natural Resources Journal, 44(1), 283-318.
  14. Pemprov Bali (2012). Peraturan Daerah Provindi Bali Nomor 9 Tahun 2012 Tentang Subak.
  15. Philander, S.G. & Barnhill, J.H. (2012). Stockholm Environment Institute. Encyclopedia of Global Warming & Climate Change, doi: 10.4135/9781452218564.n653.
  16. Rahayu, S. et al. (2019). Stakeholder role in improving agribusiness efficiency and food security in developing countries. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 7(4), 464-470, doi: 10.35808/ijeba/358.
  17. Slätmo, E. (2017). Preservation of Agricultural Land as an Issue of Societal Importance. Rural Landscapes: Society, Environment, History, 4(1), 1-12, doi: 10.16993/rl.39.
  18. Suradisastra, K. et al. (2002). Institutional description of the Balinese subak. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 21(1), 7-16.
  19. Surata, S.P.K. & Vipriyanti, N.U. (2018). The subak cultural landscape as environmental education: Knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of Balinese teachers, student teachers, and students. Journal of Environmental Education, 49(1), 59-70, doi: 10.1080/00958964.2017.1406890.
  20. Susilowati, S.H. (2016). Farmers Aging Phenomenon and Reduction in Young Labor: Its Implication for Agricultural Development. Forum Penelit. Agroecon., 34, 35-55, doi: 10.21082/fae.v34n1.2016.35-55.
  21. Vogt, L. (2014). The economic side of agrotourism: Business performance and competitive factors. Economia agro-alimentare, 15(3), 77-104, doi: 10.3280/ECAG2013-003006.
  22. Wanda George, E. (2010). Intangible cultural heritage, ownership, copyrights, and tourism. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4(4), 376-388, doi: 10.1108/17506181011081541.
  23. Windia, W. et al. (2005). Tri Hita Karana (thk) Sebagai Teknologi Sepadan Dalam Pertanian. soca (Socio-Economic of Agriculture and Agribusiness), 5(3).
  24. Yang, H.C., L.L. & H.C. (2010). Tourism management. Analysis of international tourist arrivals in China: The role of world heritage sites.
  25. Yuliana, Sriyati, S. & Sanjaya, Y. (2017). Local wisdom of Ngata Toro community in utilizing forest resources as a learning source of biology. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1868(August), doi: 10.1063/1.4995217.
  26. Yuliarmi, N.N. et al. (2012). Tthe Role of Government, Traditional Institution, and Social Capital for Empowering Small and Medium Industries. Journal of Economics, Business, and Accountancy | Ventura, 15(2), 205, doi: 10.14414/jebav.v15i2.75.


Metrics Loading ...