Salta al menu principale di navigazione Salta al contenuto principale Salta al piè di pagina del sito

Newsletter "Clinica dell'Alcolismo"

N. 49 (2018)

Una riflessione sull'efficacia delle politiche preventive per il controllo dei consumi di bevande alcoliche

23 February 2018



Riferimenti bibliografici

  1. Albalate D. (2006). Lowering blood alcohol content levels to save lives: the European experience. Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics (No. CREAP20006-07).
  2. Ahlström S. (2008). Alcohol use and problems among older women and men: A review. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 25(2): 154-161.
  3. Alexander B.K. (2008). The globalisation of addiction: A study in poverty of the spirit. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. ALICE RAP (2015). Position paper sul margine di esposizione (per il Parlamento Europeo)
  5. ALICE RAP (2016). Addiction and Lifestyles in Contemporary Europe - Reframing Addictions Project Well Being Library (accessed July 2016).
  6. Allamani A., Pepe P., Voller F. (2015). L’Europa tra culture del bere e politiche di controllo alcologico. Newsletter “Clinica dell’Alcolismo”, V(20): I-VIII – Mission, 44: 31-38.
  7. Allamani A., Olimpi N., Pepe P., Cipriani F.(2014). Trends in Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Policy Interventions in Europe: An Uncertainty “Associated” Perspective. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(12): 1531-1545.
  8. Allamani A., Pepe P., Baccini M., Massini G., Voller F. (2014). Europe. An analysis of changes in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the interaction between consumption, related harms, contextual factors and alcoholic beverage control policies. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(12): 1692-1715.
  9. AMPHORA Workpackage3 (2013). Report of an analysis of European alcohol-related cultural, social and policy interactions and their impact on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm
  10. AMPHORA_WP3_D3.2.pdf.
  11. Anderson P., Chisholm D., Fuhr D. (2009). Effectiveness and costeffectiveness
  12. of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol. Lancet, 373: 2234-46.
  13. Anderson P., Møller L., Galea G. (2012). Alcohol in the European Union. Consumption, harm and policy approaches. World Health Organisation, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.
  14. Anderson P., Baumberg B. (2006), Stakeholders’ views of alcohol policy. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 23: 393-414.
  15. Anderson P., Baumberg B. (2006). Alcohol in Europe. A public health perspective. London: Institute of Alcohol Studies (
  16. Angus C., Latimer N., Preston L., Li J., Purshouse R. (2014). What are the implications for policy makers? A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of screening and brief interventions for alcohol misuse in primary care. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5: 114.
  17. Antunes R., Gonzalez V. (2015). A Production Model for Construction: A Theoretical Framework. Buildings, 5(1): 209-228. doi: 10.3390/buildings5010209.
  18. Babor T.F., Caetano R., Casswell S., Edwards G., Giesbrecht N., Graham K., Grube J.W., Hill L., Holder H., Homel R., Livingston M., Österberg E., Rehm J., Room R., and Rossow I. (2010). Alcohol: no ordinary commodity, Research and public policy, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  19. Babor T.F., Del Boca F., Bray J.W. (2017). Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment: implications of SAMHSA’s SBIRT initiative for substance abuse policy and
  20. practice. Addiction, 112, S2: 110-117.
  21. Baccini M., Carreras G. (2014). Analyzing and comparing the association between Control Policy Measures and Alcohol Consumption in Europe. Substance Use & Misuse, 49: 1684-1691.
  22. Beccaria F., Rolando S. (2016). The more you know, the better you drink: The new drinking culture in Italian wine production areas. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 1-9 (early on line). doi: 10.3109/09687637.2016.1149149.
  23. Beccaria F., Rolando S., Ascani P. (2012). Alcohol consumption and Quality of Life among young adults. A comparison among three European countries. Substance Use and Misuse, 47(11): 1214-23.
  24. Berten H., Vetternburg, N. Steketee M., Steketee M., Jonkman H. van den Toorn J. et al. (2013). Policies, programmes and interventions: results of focus groups with practionners, policymakers and researchers. In: Steketee M., Jonkman H.,
  25. Berten H., Vettenburg N. (eds.). Alcohol use Among Adolescents in Europe Environmental Research and Preventive Actions. Utrecht - anche in, pp. 314-317.
  26. Buscema P.M. (1995). Squashing Theory: a Prediction Approach for Drug Behavior. Drug and Society, 8(3-4): 103-109.
  27. Buscema P.M., Massini G., Maurelli G. (2014). Artificial Neural Networks: An overview. Substance Use and Misuse, 49: 155-1568.
  28. Bloomfield K., Wicki M., Gustafsson N-K., Mäkelä P., Room R. (2010). Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems after Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(1): 32-40.
  29. Bloomfield K., Karlsson T., Grittner U. (2016). How do drinking cultures change? – or do they? A provisional model based on evidence of transitions in Denmark. Drugs: education, prevention and policy, 23(4): 283-92.
  30. Bruun K., Edwards G., Lumio M., Mäkelä K., Pan L., Popham R.E., Room R., Schmidt W., Skog, O.J., Sulkunen P., Österberg E. (1975). Alcohol control policies in public health
  31. perspective. The Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Volume 25, Forssa.
  32. Callinan S., Room R.. Livingston M. (2014). Changes in Australian attitudes to alcohol policy: 1995-2010. Drug and Alcohol Review, 33: 227-234.
  33. Casswell S. (2012). Current status of alcohol marketing policy – an urgent challenge for global governance. Addiction, 107: 478-485. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03701.x.
  34. Cipriani F., Prina F. (2007). The Research Outcome: Summary and Conclusions on the Reduction in Wine Consumption in Italy. In: Beccaria F., Allamani A. (a cura di). Changes in the Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages in Italy: Studies of the Decrease in Consumption between the 1970s and the 2000s. Contemporary
  35. Drug Problems, 34(2): 361-378.
  36. Connor J. (2016). Alcohol consumption as a cause of cancer. Addiction. doi: 10.1111/add.13477.
  37. CNAPA Committee on National Alcohol Policy and Action Action Plan (2014). Youth Drinking and on Heavy Episodic Drinking (Binge Drinking) (2014-2016), 16 Settembre,
  38. Craplet M. (2006). Open letter to my friends and colleagues. Addiction, 101: 450-452.
  39. de Bruijn A., Johansen I., van den Broeck A. (2010). Effective alcohol marketing regulations: a proposed framework to evaluate existing alcohol marketing regulations. Utrecht: Dutch Institute for Alcohol Policy.
  40. de Bruijn A., Tanghe J., de Leeuw R., Engels R., Anderson P., Beccaria F., Bujalski M., Celata C., Gosselt J., Schreckenberg D., S¬odownik L., Wothge J., van Dalen W. (2016). European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents’
  41. alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use. Addiction. doi: 10.1111/add.13455.
  42. Einstein S. (2012). Introduction. Substance Use and Misuse, 47: 1360-1364.
  43. Elder R.W., Lawrence B., Ferguson A., Naimi T.S., Brewer R.D. Chattopadhyay S.K., Toomey T.L., Fielding J.E., the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (2010). The Effectiveness of Tax Policy Interventions for Reducing Excessive Alcohol
  44. Consumption and Related Harms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(2): 217-229.
  45. European Health for All Database (HFA-DB), World Health Organization (2016).
  46. Commissione Europea (2010). Direzione Generale Salute e Consumatori - Development of alcohol policy and action in EU Member States 2006-2009. Allegato 1 al primo Progress Report sull’implementazione della strategia dell’UE in materia di alcol.
  47. Commissione europea al link:
  48. Feller W. (1968). An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications, (Vol. 1), 3rd Ed. Taiwan: Wiley and Sons.
  49. Ferreira-Borges C., Esser M.B., Dias S. et al. (2015). Alcohol Control Policies in 46 African Countries: Opportunities for Improvement. Alcohol Alcohol, 50: 470-6.
  50. Foxcroft D.R., Tsertsvadze A. (2011). Universal multi-component prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (9): CD009307.
  51. Foxcroft D.R., Coombes L., Wood S., Allen D., Almeida Santimano N.M.L. (2014). Motivational interviewing for alcohol misuse in young adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (8): CD007025.
  52. Grant S., Pedersen E.R., Osilla K.C., Kulesza M., D’Amico E.J. (2016). Reviewing and interpreting the effects of brief alcohol interventions: comment on a Cochrane review about motivational interviewing for young adults. Addiction, 111(9): 1521-1527.
  53. Giesbrecht N., Wettlaufer A., Cukier S., Geddie G., Gonçalves A.-H., Reisdorfer E. (2016). Do alcohol pricing and availability have differential effects on subpopulations? A commentary. International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research, 5(3): 89-99.
  54. Green C.P., Heywood J.S., Navarro M. (2014). Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents? Journal of Health Economics, 35: 189-198. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2014.03.007.
  55. Gruenewald P.J. (2011). Regulating availability: how access to alcohol affects drinking and problems in youth and adults. Alcohol Research & Health, 34(2): 248-256.
  56. Hahn R.A., Kuzara J.L., Elder R., Brewer R., Chattopadhyay S., Fielding J., Naimi T.S., Toomey T., Middleton J.C., Lawrence B. & Task Force on Community Preventive Service (2010). Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in
  57. preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39(6): 590-604.
  58. Heath D. (ed.) (1995). International handbook on alcohol and culture. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press.
  59. Hill A.B. (1965). The environment and disease: association or causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 58: 295-300.
  60. Ioannidis J.P.A. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Med, 2(8): e124.
  61. Holder D.H., Reynolds R. (1999). Alcohol policy and community action: Experiences from a national prevention trial to reduce alcohol problems. Community action to prevent alcohol problems. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, pp. 78-89.
  63. Holder H.D., Moore R.S. (2000). Institutionalization of Community Action Projects to Reduce Alcohol-Use Related Problems: Systematic Facilitators. Substance Use and Misuse, 35(1, 2): 75-86.
  64. Holmes J., Meng Y., Meier PS., Brennan A., Angus C., Campbell- Burton A., Guo Y., Hill-McManus D., Purshouse R.C. (2014). Effects of minimum unit pricing for alcohol on different income and socioeconomic groups: a modelling study. The Lancet, 383(9929): 1655-64.
  65. Jiang H., Room R. (2016). The many facets of alcohol policy. International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research, 5(3): 85-87.
  66. Järvinen M., Room R. (eds.) (2007). Youth drinking cultures. European experiences. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  67. Jones L., Bates G., McCoy E. et al. (2015). Relationship between alcohol-attributable disease and socioeconomic status, and the role of alcohol consumption in this relationship: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 5: 400. doi:
  68. 1186/s12889-015-1720-7.
  69. Kerr W.C., Patterson D., Koenen M.A., Greenfield T.K. (2009). Large drinks are no mistake: Glass size, but not shape, affects alcoholic beverage drink pours. Drug and Alcohol Review, 28(4): 360-365. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00056.x.
  70. Karlsson T., Lindemann M., Österberg E. (2012). Does alcohol policy make any difference? Scales and consumption. In: Anderson P., Braddick F., Reynolds J., Gual A. (eds.). Alcohol policy in Europe: Evidence from AMPHORA, 2nd ed. The AMPHORA
  71. project, pp. 15-23. From:
  72. Kolosnitsyna M., Sitdikov M., Khorkina N. (2014) Availability restrictions and alcohol consumption: A case of restricted hours of alcohol sales in Russian regions. International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research, 3(3): 193-201.
  73. Kypri K., Craig Jones C., McElduff P., Barker D. (2011). Effects of restricting pub closing times on night-time assaults in an Australian city. Addiction, 106(2): 303-310.
  74. Larsson S. (1990). Democracy and Community Action Programs. In: Research, Action and the Community: Experiences in the Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Problems. OSAP Prevention Monograph-4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland: 41-44.
  75. Ledermann S. (1956). Alcool, alcoolisme, alcoolisation. Donnés scientifiques de caractére physiologique, économique et social. Presses Universitaires de France.
  76. Leifman H. (1996). Perspectives on the aggregated consumption of alcohol. Summary article in Leifman H. Perspectives on alcohol prevention, Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Stockholm studies in sociology, N.S. 3. Almqvist & Wicksell International, Stockholm, pp. 3-9.
  77. Lindbladh E., Hanson B.S. (1993). A critical analysis of different leadership approaches to community health work in Kirserberg, Sweden. Health Promotion International, 8(4): 291-297.
  78. Lippy C., DeGue S. (2014). Exploring alcohol policy approaches to prevent sexual violence perpetration. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 17(1): 26-42.
  79. Lolli G., Serianni E., Golder G.M., Luzzatto-Fegiz P. (1959). Alcohol in Italian culture: food and wine in relation to sobriety among Italians and Italian Americans. Glencoe, ILL: Free Press.
  80. Mäkelä P., Rossow I., Tryggvesson K. (2002). Who drinks more or less when policies change? The evidence from 50 years of Nordic studies. In: Room R. (ed.). The effects of Nordic alcohol policies. What happens to drinking and harm when alcohol controls
  81. change? Helsinki, Finland: Nordic Council for Alcohol and Drug Research.
  82. McCartt A.T., Hellinga L.A., Kirley B.B. (2010). The effects of minimum legal drinking age 21 laws on alcohol-related driving in the United States. Journal of Safety Research, 41(2): 173-181.
  83. McLeod J., Gell L., Holmes J., Allamani A., Baumberg B., Bjerge B. et al. (2016). Determinants of transition form harmful to low-risk substance use and gambling. In: Gell L., Bühringer G., McLeod J., Forberger S., Holmes J., Lingford-Hughes A., Meier P. (eds.). What determines harm from addictive substances and behaviours? Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 114-155.
  84. Meier PS., Holmes J., Angus C., Ally AK., Meng Y., Brennan A. (2016). Estimated effects of different alcohol taxation and price policies on health inequalities: A mathematical modelling study. PLOS Medicine, 13(2): e1001963.
  85. Moskalewicz J. (2012). Common evidence base and monitoring. In: Anderson P., Møller P., Galea G. (2012). Alcohol in the European Union. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, pp. 111-117.
  86. Møller L., Anderson P. (2012). Summary. In: Anderson P., Møller L., Galea G. Alcohol in the European Union. Consumption, harm and policy approaches. World Health Organisation, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, pp 1-4.
  87. Monteiro M.G., Babor T.E., Jernigan D., Brookes C. (2017). Alcohol marketing regulation: from research to public policy. Addiction, 112(Suppl. 1): 3-6.
  88. Munafò M. (2017). Promoting reproducibility in addiction research. Addiction, 112: 1519-1520.
  89. Nelson J. P. (2010). Alcohol advertising bans, consumption, and control policies in seventeen OECD countries, 1975-2000. Applied Economics, 42: 803-823.
  90. Nelson J.P., McNall A. (2015). What Happens to Drinking and Harms When Alcohol Policy Changes? A Systematic Review ofFive Natural Experiments for Alcohol Taxes, Prices, and Availability. Social Science Research Network,
  91. abstract=2612580 or
  92. Nelson J.P., McNall A. (2016). Alcohol prices, taxes, and alcoholrelated harms: A critical review of natural experiments in alcohol policy for nine countries. Health Policy, 120(3): 264-272. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2016.01.018.
  93. Nordlund S., Østhus S. (2013). What is alcohol abuse? Attitudes to drinking in seven European Countries. Addiction Research and Theory, 21(5): 402-409.
  94. Oderkirk J., Sassi F., Cecchini M., Astolfi R. (2012). Toward a New Comprehensive International Health and Health Care Policy Decision Support Tool. OECD Health Division,
  95. OECD (2015). Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use: Economics and Public Health Policy, oEcd publishing. doi: 10.1787/9789264181069-en.
  96. Oetting E.R., Jumper-Thurman P., Plested B., Edwards R.W. (2001). Community Readiness and Health Services. Substance Use and Misuse, 36(6-7): 825-843.
  97. Pan American Health Organization (2017). Technical Note: Background on Alcohol Marketing Regulation and Monitoring for the Protection of Public Health. Washington, D.C: PAHO,
  98. HONMH17003-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
  99. Patra J., Giesbrecht N., Rehm J., Bekmuradov D., Popova S. (2012). Are alcohol prices and taxes an evidence-based approach to reducing alcohol-related harm and promoting public health and safety? A Literature Review. Contemporary Drug Problems, 39: 7-48.
  100. Peele S. (2010). Alcohol as evil – Temperance and policy. Addiction Research and Theory. 18(4): 374-382.
  101. Peele S., Grant M. (eds.) (1999). Alcohol and Pleasure. A health perspective. ICAP, Taylor and Francis, United kingdom.
  102. Pridemore W.A., Snowden A.J. (2009). Reduction in suicide mortality following a New National Alcohol Policy in Slovena: An interrupted time-series analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 99(5): 915-920.
  103. Pridemore W.A., Chamlin M.V., Andreev E. (2013). Reduction in male suicide mortality following the 2006 Russian alcohol policy: An interrupted time series analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 103(11): 2021-2026.
  104. Prina F. (2010). Le norme sulle bevande alcoliche e la loro applicazione: un bilancio nella prospettiva socio-giuridica. In: I giovani e l’alcool: consumi, abusi, politiche. Una rassegna critica multidisciplinare (in coll. con E. Tempesta), numero monografico
  105. di Salute e Società, IX(Supplemento al n. 3): 96-116.
  106. Rehm J., Scafato E. (2011). Indicators of alcohol consumption and attributable harm for monitoring and surveillance in European Union countries. Addiction, 106: 4-10.
  107. Rehm J., Lachenmeier D.W., Room R. (2014). Why does society accept higher risk for alcohol than for other voluntary or involuntary risks? BMC Medicine, 12: 189.
  108. Rehm J., Gmel G., Probst C., Shield K.D. (2015). RAHRA: Lifetimerisk of alcohol-attributable mortality based on different levels of alcohol consumption in seven European countries. Implications for low-risk drinking guidelines. Toronto, On, Canada: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.
  109. Room R. (1997). Alcohol, the individual and society: what history teaches us. Addiction, 92: S7-S11.
  110. Room R., Babor T., Rehm J. (2005). Alcohol and public health. Lancet, 365: 519-30.
  111. Room R. (2016). Sources of funding as an influence on alcohol studies. The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, 5(1): 15-16. doi: 10.7895/ijadr.v5i1.231.
  112. Roumeliotis F. (2016). Empowered Communities: Science, Ideology and the limits of Political Action. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 33: 343-359.
  113. Schütze M., Boeing H., Pischon T., Rehm J., Kehoe T., Gmel G. et al. (2011). Alcohol-attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries, based on results from prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 342: d1584.
  115. Shield K.D., Parkin D.M., Whiteman D.C., Rehm J., Viallon V., Marant Micakkef C., Vineis P., Rushton L., Bray F., Soerjomataram I. (2106). Population Attributable and
  116. Preventable Fractions: Cancer Risk Factor Surveillance, and Cancer Policy Projection. Current Epidemiology Reports, 3(3): 201-2113. doi: 10.1007/s40471-016-0085.
  117. Shield K.D., Rylett M., Rehm J. (2016). Public health successes and missed opportunities. Trends in alcohol consumption and attributable mortality in the WHO European Region, 1990-2014. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.
  118. Shults R.A., Elder R.W., Sleet D.A., Nichols L.J., Alao M.O., Carande-Kuli V.G., Zaza S., Sosi D.M., Thompson R.S., Task Force on Community Preventive Services (2001). Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. Americ an Journal of Preventive Medicine, 21: 66-88.
  119. Skog O.J. (1985). The Collectivity of Drinking Cultures: A Theory of the Distribution of Alcohol Consumption. British Journal of Addiction, 80: 83-99.
  120. Sornpaisarn B., Shield K.D., Rehm J. (2012). Alcohol taxation policy in Thailand: implications for other low- to middle-income countries. Addiction, 107: 1372-84.
  121. Starr C. (1969). Social benefit versus technological risk. Science, 165: 1232-8.
  122. Stockwell T.R., Chikritzhs T.N. (2009). Do relaxed trading hours for bars and clubs mean more relaxed drinking? A review of international research on the impacts of changes to permitted hours of drinking. Crime Prevention and Community Safety,
  123. (3): 153-171.
  124. Sulkunen P. (1989). Drinking in France 1965-1979. An analysis of household consumption data. British Journal of Addiction, 84: 61-72.
  125. Touvier M., Druesne-Pecollo N., Kesse-Guyot N., Andreeva V.A., Galan P., Hercberg S., Latino-Martel P. (2014). Demographic, socioeconomic, disease history, dietary and lifestyle cancer risk factors associated with alcohol consumption. International
  126. Journal of Cancer, 134: 445-459.
  127. Treno A.J., Gruenewald P.J., Lee J.P., Rmeer L.G. (2007). The Sacramento Neighborhood Alcohol Prevention Project: outcomes from a community prevention trial. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68(2): 197-207.
  128. Tusini S. (2006). Le altre ipotesi interpretative sul calo del consumo di bevande alcoliche. In: Allamani A., Cipriani F., Prina F. (a cura di) (2006). I cambiamenti nei consumi di bevande alcoliche in Italia: uno studio esplorativo sul decremento dei consumi negli anni 1970-2000. I Quaderni dell’Osservatorio Permanente Giovani e Alcool n. 17. Roma: Casa Editrice Litos, pp. 117-170.
  129. UCL-Institute of Health Equity (2013). Review of social determinants and the health divide in the WHO European Region: final report. World Health Organization (update reprint 2014), p. 158.
  130. UNICEF Office of Research (2016). Fairness for Children: A League Table of Inequality in Child Well-Being in Rich Countries, Innocenti Report Card 13, Florence.
  131. Wagenaar A.C., Salois M.J., Komro K.A. (2009). Effects of beverage alcohol price and tax levels on drinking: a meta-analysis of 1003 estimates from 112 studies. Addiction, 104: 179-190. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02438.x.
  132. Wicki M., Gmel G. (2011). Hospital admission rates for alcoholic intoxication after policy changes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118(2-3): 209-215.
  133. Wilkinson C., Room R. (2009). Informational and warning labels on alcohol containers, sales, places and advertisements: experience internationally and evidence on effects. Drug and Alcohol Review, 28(4): 341-461.
  134. World Health Organization (1993). European Alcohol Action Plan. Copenhagen, WHO, Regional Office for Europe.
  135. World Health Organization (2011a). Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH) [database online]. Ginevra: WHO.
  136. World Health Organization (2011b). European action plan to reduce the harmful use of alcohol 2012-2020. Copenhagen, WHO, Regional Office for Europe.
  137. World Health Organization (2014b). Alcohol and inequities. WHO Regional Office for Europe
  138. World Health Organization (2014a) Global status report on alcohol and health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Copenhagen, Danimarca.
  140. World Health Organization (2015). Beyond bias: exploring the cultural contexts of health and well-being measurement. Primo incontro del gruppo di esperti. WHO, Regional Office for Europe Copenaghen, Denmkark, Jan. 2015.
  142. Xuan Z., Blanchette J., Nelson T.F., Heeren T., Oussayef N., Naimi T.S. (2015). The alcohol policy environment and policy subgroups as predictors of binge drinking measures among US adults. American Journal of Public Health, 105(4): 816-822.
  143. Zaton´ski W.A., Sulkowska U., Zaton´ski M.Z., Herbeç A.A., Muszyn´ska M.M. (2015). Alcohol taxation and premature mortality in Europe. Lancet, 385(9974): 1181. doi:
  144. 1016/S0140-6736(15)60634-1.
  145. Zupan Z., Pechey R., Couturier D.L., Hollands G.J., Marteau T.M. (2017). Micro-drinking behaviours and consumption of wine in different wine glass sizes: a laboratory study. BMC Psychology, 5: 17. doi: 10.1186/s40359-017-0183-2.


Caricamento metriche ...