This paper aims to demystify a lot of misconceptions still widely circulating today about the alleged properties of blockchain and then illustrate the real opportunities that this technology offers for “food system” and how it must be correctly implemented for it to be truly useful, for producers and consumers, particularly in the agrifood sector. The concepts of blockchain opportunities and incompleteness of agri-food chain projects based on blockchain technology are then explained, setting out the minimum and necessary characteristics required to make the use of this technology useful and effective (Minimum Viable Ecosystem). The process governance levels for the development and maintenance of a blockchain traceability project are then illustrated, focusing on the role and responsibility of each player in the supply chain.
Finally, the structure of a blockchain solution is described, focusing on a number of structural and technological solutions by outlining the concepts of consistency checking for the validation of input data with appropriate smart contracts, and of information frameworks for the subsequent scrutiny of data in audit operations and the assignment of levels of reliability.
These are essential prerequisites for a collaborative blockchain data management to pursue the objective of actual reliability and transparency of information.