Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Regular Articles

Vol. 23 No. 2 (2021)

Prevalence and correlates of food insecurity in rural Nigeria: A panel analysis

luglio 30, 2021


The study assessed dynamics of food insecurity among households in rural Nigeria using the Living Standard Measurement Survey-Integrated Survey on Agriculture (LSMSISA) collected in 2010/2011 and 2015/2016. Food insecurity status of the households was constructed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and analysed with descriptive statistics and random effect ordered probit model. Overall, 63.10%, 26.24%, 9.53% and 1.13% of households were food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure and
severely food insecure, respectively in the first panel; while 46.53%, 31.63%, 19.39% and 2.45% were food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure and severely food insecure, respectively in the second panel. Food insecurity status increased with large household size, dependency ratio, being female-headed and aging household heads. Households in south-eastern Nigeria had a higher food insecurity incidence than elsewhere. Age, age squared, female to male adult ratio, primary and tertiary education, occupation, marital status, household size, access to credit and living in North East, North West, South West, South East and South zones were the correlates of food insecurity in rural Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study recommended an increased awareness on the use of family planning methods and improved access to family planning services. Also, severely food insecure households should be identified and specifically targeted by the government for appropriate safety net interventions.


  1. Adepoju, O.A. & Kayode, A.A. (2013). Food Insecurity Status of Rural Households During the Post Planting Season in Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 4(1), 16-35. --
  2. Agada, M.O. & Igbokwe, E.M. (2014). Food Security and Coping Strategies among Ethnic Groups in North Central Nigeria. Developing Country Studies, 4(8), 31-44. --
  3. Agbola, P.O. (2014). Factors Influencing Food Insecurity among Small Farmers in Nigeria, African Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(27), 2104-2110, doi: 10.5897/AJAR09.710.
  4. Ahmed, F.F., Eugene, C.E. & Abah, P.O. (2015). Analysis of Food Security among Farming Households in Borno State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environment and Social Sciences, 1(1), 130-141.
  5. Akerele, D., Momoh, S., Aromolaran, A.B., Oguntona, C.R.B. & Shittu, A.M. (2013). Food Insecurity and Coping Strategies in South-West Nigeria. Food Sec. 5, 407-414, doi: 10.1007/s12571-013-0264-x.
  6. Akinyele, I.O. (2009). Ensuring Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Nigeria: An Assessment of the Challenges, Information Needs, and Analytical Capacity. NSSP Working Paper 7. Abuja, Nigeria: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). --
  7. Alaimo, K., Olson, C.M. & Frongillo, E.A. (2001). Food Insufficiency and American School-aged Children’s Cognitive, Academic and Psychosocial Development. Pediatrics, 108, 44-53. --
  8. Amao, J.O. & Ayantoye, K. (2017). Analysis of Food Insecurity Status among Farming Households in North Central Nigeria. Int. J. Adv. Agric. Res., 5, 10-22.
  9. Auerbach, R. (2018). Sustainable Food Systems for Africa. Economia Agro-Alimentare, 20(3), 301-320, doi: 10.3280/ECAG2018-003003.
  10. Ayantoye, K., Yusuf, S.A., Omonona, B.T. & Amao, J.O. (2011). Food Insecurity Dynamics and its Correlates among Rural Households in Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, 4(1), 43-55. --
  11. Baltagi, B.H. (2005). Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, Third Edition, New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  12. Blundell, R. & Matyas, L. (1992). Panel Data Analysis: An Introductory Overview. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 3(2), 291-299, doi: 10.1016/0954-349X(92)90008-T.
  13. Coates, J., Swindale, A. & Bilinsky, P. (2007). Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for Measurement of Household Food Access: Indicator Guide (v3). Washington, DC: FHI 360/FANTA-2.
  14. Daneshi-Maskooni, M., Shab-Bidar, S., Badri-Fariman, M., Aubi, E., Mohammadi, Y., Jafarnejad, S. & Djafarian, K. (2017). Questionnaire-based prevalence of food insecurity in Iran: A review article. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 46(11), 1454-1464.
  15. Edeh, H.O. & Gyimah-Brempong, K. (2015). Determinants of Change and Household Responses to Food Insecurity: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 10(5), 423-433, doi: 10.5897/AJAR2014.9037.
  16. ESAF (2007). Food Security and Agricultural Projects Analysis Service. Understanding the Dynamics of Food Insecurity and Vulnerability in Orissa, India. ESA Working Paper No. 07-28. Rome. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome.
  17. Food and Agricultural Organization, (2015). The State of Food Insecurity in the World, Meeting the 2015 International Hunger Targets: Taking Stock of Uneven Progress. FAO in Conjunction with IFAD and WFP, Rome, FAO.
  18. Food and Agricultural Organization, (2016). FAOSTAT. Retrieved 10.4, 2020, -- from
  19. Food and Agricultural Organization (2019). FAOSTAT retrieved 10.4.2020, --from
  20. Food Security Portal (2014). Food Security Portal, Nigeria. --
  21. Foster, J., Greer J. & Thorbecke, E. (1984). A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures. Econometrica, 52, 761-765, doi: 10.2307/1913475.
  22. Grebmer, K., Bernstein, J. Mukerji, R., Patterson, F., Wiemers, M., Ní Chéilleachair, R., Foley, C., Gitter, S., Ekstrom, K. & Fritschel, H. (2019). 2019 Global Hunger Index: The Challenge of Hunger and Climate Change. Bonn: Welthungerhilfe; and Dublin: Concern Worldwide, Dublin / Bonn. --
  23. Greene, W.H. (2000). Econometric Analysis, Fourth edition. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
  24. Hill, R.C., Griffiths, W.E. & Lim, G.C. (2007). Principles of Econometrics Model, Fourth Edition, New Jersey, usa: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  25. Ibrahim, H.Y., Adeola, S.S. & Ibrahim, H.I. (2016). Determinants of Food Insecurity among Farming Households in Katsina State, North Western Nigeria: An Ordinal Logit Regression Approach. Journal of Agricultural sciences, 61(3), 291-301, doi: 10.2298/JAS1603291I.
  26. IFAD (2012). International Fund for Agricultural Development, Annual Report IFAD, Monte Forte.
  27. Irohibe, J.I. & Agwu, E.A. (2014). Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State. Nigeria Journal of Central European Agriculture, 15(1), 94-107, doi: 10.5513/JCEA01/15.1.1418.
  28. Kumba, J.K. (2015). The Role of Household Characteristics in Determining Food Security in Kisii Central Sub-County, Kenya. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(7), 186-193. --
  29. Knight, E., House, L., Nelson, M.C. & Degner, R. (2005). An Evaluation of Consumer Preferences Regarding Goat Meat in the South. Food Distribution Research, 37(1), 88-96.
  30. Mahmood, T., Yu, X. & Klasen, S. (2019). Do the Poor Really Feel Poor? Comparing Objective Poverty with Subjective Poverty in Pakistan. Social
  31. Indicators Research, 142, 543-580, doi: 10.1007/s11205-018-1921-4.
  32. Munyeshyaka, J.M.V., Lee, E. & Diabre, O. (2019). Analytical Report on Inflation in Consumer Price Index for Food (March 2019), pp. 1-8.
  33. National Bureau of Statistics (2016). General Households Survey, 2015-2016 Panel Data for Nigeria. Abuja.
  34. National Research Council (2006). Food Insecurity and Hunger in the United States: An Assessment of the Measure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, doi: 10.17226/11578.
  35. Obayelu, A.E. (2012). Households’ Food Security Status and its Determinants in the North-Central Nigeria. Food Economics. Journal of Food Economics, 9(4), 241-256, doi: 10.1080/2164828X.2013.845559.
  36. Ogundari, K. (2017). Categorizing Households into Different Food Security States in Nigeria: The Socioeconomic and Demographic Determinants. Agricultural and Food Economics, 5(8), doi: 10.1186/s40100-017-0076-y.
  37. Omonona, B.T. & Agoi, G.A. (2007). An Analysis of Food Security Situation among Nigerian Urban Households: Evidence from Lagos State. Nigeria Journal of Central European Agriculture, 8(3), 397-406, doi: 10.5513/jcea.v8i3.477.
  38. Omorogiuwa, O., Zivkovic, J. & Ademoh, F. (2014). The Role of Agriculture in the Economic Development of Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 10(4), 113-147. doi: 10.19044/esj.2014.v10n4p%p.
  39. Owoo, S.N. (2018). Food Insecurity and Family Structure in Nigeria. SSMPopulation Health, 4, 117-125, doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2017.12.004.
  40. Quandt, S.A., Arcury, T.A., McDonald, J., Bell, R.A. & Vitolins, M.Z. (2001). Meaning and Management of Food Security among Rural Elders. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 20(3), 356-376. doi: 10.1177/073346480102000307.
  41. Quddus, M.A. & Bauer, S. (2014). Food security and morbidity of elderly in disadvantaged rural Bangladesh. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University, 12(1), 95-104, doi: 10.3329/jbau.v12i1.21254.
  42. Ribar, D., & Hamrick, K. (2003). Dynamics of Poverty and Food Insufficiency: Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report No. 36, Washington, DC: USDA.
  43. Smith, M.D., Kassa, W. & Winters, P. (2017). Assessing food insecurity in Latin America and the Caribbean using FAO’s Food Insecurity Experience Scale. Food Policy, 71(C), 48-61, doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.07.005.
  44. Stormer, A. & Harrison, G.G. (2003). Does Household Food Security Affect Cognitive and Social Development of Kindergarteners? Discussion Paper No. 1276-03. Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty.
  45. UNDP (2016). UNDP Support to the Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. undp Policy and Programme Brief. New York.
  46. UNDP (2019). Human Development Report 2019-Beyond income, beyond averages, beyond today: Inequalities in human development in the 21st century. New York.
  47. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (2007). Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for Measurement of Food Access: Indicator Guide (Version 3). FANTA, Washington.
  48. Wee, R.Y. (2017). Top Sweet Potato Growing Countries. -- Retrieved from
  49. Wolfe, W.S., Frongillo, E.A. & Valois, P. (2003). Understanding the Experience of Elderly Food Insecurity Suggests Ways to Improve its Measurement. Journal of Nutrition, 133(9), 2762-2769, doi: 10.1093/jn/133.9.2762.
  50. Yusuf, S.A, Balogun, O.L. & Falegbe, O.E. (2015). Effect of Urban Household Farming on food Security Status in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 60(1), 61-75, doi: 10.2298/JAS1501061Y.


Metrics Loading ...