Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Regular Articles

Vol. 22 No. 2 (2020)

On positive externalities from irrigated agriculture and their policy implications: An overview

DOI
https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2-2020oa10412
Submitted
September 17, 2020
Published
2020-09-17

Abstract

Water has important economic values, mainly in the agricultural sector. Beside enhancing agricultural output and crop diversification, irrigation generates positive externalities which have been little emphasized by the literature. The purpose of this review is to investigate the direct, indirect and potential
benefits of water use in agriculture by taking an additional step towards the identification and economic evaluation of the observed positive, social, environmental and ecological effects of irrigation. Five categories of contributions are examined: irrigation returns flows for groundwater recharge; biodiversity
and wildlife habitat; landscape aesthetic and cultural values; nutrient recycling and retention; and improved health, nutritionand living conditions. Knowing the economic value of  such positive externalities would help to get the right policy incentives for better water use and increased water savings in a context of growing water scarcity.

References

  1. Abellán, P., Sanchéz-Fernandéz, D., Millán, A., Botella, F., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A. & Giménez, A. (2006). Irrigation pools as macroinvertebrate habitat in a semi-arid agricultural landscape. Journal of Arid Environments 67, 255-269. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.02.009.
  2. Aizaki, I., Sato, K. & Osari, H. (2006). Contingent valuation approach in measuring the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas in Japan. Paddy Water Environments, 4, 217-222. doi: 10.1007/s10333-006-0052-8.
  3. Alexandratos, N. & Brunisma, J. (2012). World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 Revision. ESA Working Paper No. 12-03. Rome: FAO.
  4. Ali-Askari, K.O. & Shayannejad, M. (2015). Presenting a Mathematical Model for Estimating the Deep Percolation Due to Irrigation. International Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 4(1), 17-21.
  5. Aseyehegn, K., Yirga, C. & Rajan, S. (2012). Effect of Small-Scale Irrigation on the Income of Rural Farm Households: The Case of Laelay Maichew District, Central Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(1), 43-57. doi: 10.4038/jas.v7i1.4066.
  6. Aspe, C., Gilles, A. & Jacqué, M. (2016). Irrigation Canals as Tools for Climate Change Adaptation and Fish Biodiversity Management in Southern France. Regional Environmental Change, 16(7), 1975-1984. doi: 10.1007/s10113-014-0695-8.
  7. Bambaradeniya, C.N.B., Edirisinghe, J.P., De Silva, D.N., Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Ranawana, K.B. & Wijekoon, S. (2004). Biodiversity associated with an irrigated rice agro-ecosystem in Sri Lanka. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13(9), 1715-1753. doi: 10.1023/B:BIOC.0000029331.92656.de.
  8. Bhattacharyya, R., Pandey, S.C., Bisht, J.K., Bhatt, J.C., Gupta, H.S., Tuti, M.D., Mahanta, D., Mina, B.L., Singh, R.D., Chandra, S., Srivastva, A.K. & Kundu S. (2013). Tillage and irrigation effects on soil aggregation and carbon pools in the Indian Sub-Himalayas. Agronomy Journal, 105(1), 101-112. doi: 10.2134/agronj2012.0223.
  9. Benedetti, I., Branca, G. & Zucaro, R. (2019). Evaluating input use efficiency in agriculture through a stochastic frontier production: An application on a case study in Apulia (Italy). Journal of Cleaner Production, 236. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.117609.
  10. Branca, G., Lipper, L., Neves, B., Lopa, D. & Mawnyoka, D. (2011). Payments for Watershed Services Supporting Sustainable Agricultural Development in Tanzania. Journal of Environment and Development, 20(3), 278-302. doi: 10.1177/1070496511415645.
  11. Buchanan, J.M. & Stubblebine, C. (1962). Externality. Economica, 29(116), 371–384.
  12. doi: 10.2307/2551386.
  13. Burney, J.A., Woltering, L., Burkec, M., Naylor, R. & Pasternak, D. (2010). Solar-Powered Drip Irrigation Enhances Food Security in the Sudano–Sahel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(5), 1848-1853. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0909678107.
  14. Burney, J. & Naylor, R.L. (2012). Smallholder irrigation as a poverty alleviation tool in sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, 40(1), 110-123. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.05.007.
  15. Causapé, J., Quílez, R. & Aragüéz, R. (2004). Assessment of irrigation and environmental quality at the hydrological basin level II. Salt and nitrate loads in irrigation return flows. Agricultural Water Management, 70, 211-228. doi:
  16. 1016/j.agwat.2004.06.006.
  17. Choe, L.J., Cho, K.J., Han, M.S., Kim, M.K., Choi, S.K., Bang, H.S., EO, J., Na, Y.F. & Kim, M.H. (2016). Benthic macroinvertebrate biodiversity improved with irrigation ponds linked to a rice paddy field. Entomological Research 46(1), 70-79. doi: 10.1111/1748-5967.12150.
  18. Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O’Neil, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P., & van den Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387, 253-260. doi: 10.1038/387253a0.
  19. Daily, G.C., Alexander, S., Ehrlich, P.R., Goulder, L., Lubchenco, J., Matson, P.A., Mooney, H.A., Postel, S., Schneider, S.H., Tilman, D. & Woodwell, G.M. (1997). Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems. Issues in Ecology, 2, 1-16.
  20. Davies, B., Biggs, J., Williams, P., Whitfield, M., Nicolet, P., Sear, D., Bray, S. & Maund, S. (2008). Comparative biodiversity of aquatic habitats in the European agricultural landscape. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 125, 1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2007.10.006.
  21. Dinesh Kumar, M., Jagadeesan, S. & Sivamohan, M.V.K. (2014). Positive externalities of irrigation from the Sardar Sarovar Project for farm production and domestic water supply. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 30(1), 91-109. doi: 10.1080/07900627.2014.880228.
  22. Dollinger, J, Dagès, C., Bailly J.S., Lagacherie, P. & Voltz, M. (2015). Managing ditches for agroecological engineering of landscape. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35(3), 999–1020. doi: 10.1007/s13593-015-0301-6.
  23. Domenech, L., & Ringler, C. (2013). The Impact of Irrigation on Nutrition, Health, and Gender: A review paper with insights for Africa south of the Sahara. IFPRI Discussion paper 01259. Washington D.C.: IFPRI.
  24. Ebrahimi, H., Ghazavi, R. & Karimi, H. (2016). Estimation of Groundwater Recharge from the Rainfall and Irrigation in an Arid Environment Using Inverse Modeling Approach and RS. Water Resource Management, 30(6), 1939–1951. doi: 10.1007/s11269-016-1261-6.
  25. EC (2012). A Blueprint to Safeguard Europe’s Water Resources. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Brussels: EC (European Commission).
  26. FAO (2011). The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture. Managing Systems at Risk. Rome: fao and London: Earthscan.
  27. FAO (2012). Coping with Water Scarcity. An Action Framework for Agriculture and Food Security. fao Water Report Nr. 38. Rome: FAO.
  28. FAO (2016). The state of food and agriculture. Climate change, agriculture and food
  29. security. Rome: FAO.
  30. Feng, Y.W., Yoshinaga, I., Shiratani, E., Hitomi, T. & Hasebe, H. (2004). Characteristics and Behavior of Nutrients in a Paddy Field Area Equipped with Recycling Irrigation System. Agricultural Water Management, 68(1), 47-60. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2004.02.012.
  31. Follett, R.F. (2001). Soil Management Concepts and Carbon Sequestration in Cropland Soils. Soil & Tillage Research, 61, 77-92. doi: 10.1016/s0167-1987(01)00180-5.
  32. Galloway, D.L. & Burbey, T.J. (2011). Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction. Hydrogeology Journal, 19(8), 1459-1486. doi: 10.1007/s10040-011-0775-5.
  33. García Sánchez, E. (2011). La producción frutícola en al-Andalus: un ejemplo de biodiversidad. Estudios Avanzados, (16), 51-70.
  34. Gil Meseguer, E. (2006). Los paisajes agrarios de la región de Murcia. Papeles de Geografía, (43), 19-30.
  35. Gillabel, J., Denef, K., Brenner, J., Merckx, R. & Paustian, K. (2007). Carbon Sequestration and Soil Aggregation in Center-Pivot Irrigated and Dryland Cultivated Farming Systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71(3), 1020-1028. doi: 10.2136/sssaj2006.0215.
  36. González-Estébaneza, F.J., García-Tejeroa, S., Mateo-Tomás, P. & Olea, P.P. (2010). Effects of Irrigation and Landscape Heterogeneity on Butterfly Diversity in Mediterranean Farmlands. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 144(1), 262-270. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2011.09.002.
  37. Gordon, L., Finlayson, C.M. & Falkenmark, M. (2010). Managing Water in Agriculture for Food Production and Other Ecosystem Services. Agricultural Water Management, 97(4), 512-519. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2009.03.017.
  38. Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, 162(3859), 1243-1248. doi: 10.1126/science.162.3859.1243.
  39. Hein, L. (2010). Economics and Ecosystems. Efficiency, Sustainability and Equity in
  40. Ecosystem Management. Cheltenham (UK); Northampton, (USA): Edward Elgar.
  41. Herring, M.W., Robinson, W., Zander, K.K. & Garnett, S.T. (2019). Rice Felds Support the Global Stronghold for an Endangered Waterbird. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 284, doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2019.106599.
  42. Herzon, I., & Helenius, J. (2008). Agricultural Drainage Ditches, their Biological Importance and Functioning. Biological Conservation, 141(5), 1171-1183. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2008.03.005.
  43. Hitomi, T., Yoshinaga, I., Feng, Y.W. & Shiratani, E. (2006). Nitrogen Removal Function of Recycling Irrigation System. Water Science and Technology, 53(2), 101–109. doi: 10.2166/wst.2006.043.
  44. Hussain, I. & Hanjra, M.A. (2004). Irrigation and Poverty Alleviation: Review of The Empirical Evidence. Irrigation and Drainage, 53(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1002/ird.114.
  45. Hussain, I. (2007). Direct and Indirect Benefits and Potential Disbenefits of Irrigation: Evidence and Lessons. Irrigation and Drainage, 56, 179-194. doi: 10.1002/ird.301.
  46. Hussain, I., Turral, H., Molden, D. & Ahmad, M. (2007). Measuring and Enhancing the Value of Agricultural Water in Irrigated River Basins. Irrigation Science, 25(3), 263-282. doi: 10.1007/s00271-007-0061-4.
  47. ICWE (1992). The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development. Dublin:
  48. United Nations.
  49. Jiménez-Martínez, J., Skaggs, T.H., van Genuchten, M.Th. & Candela, L. (2009). A Root Zone Modelling Approach to Estimating Groundwater Recharge from Irrigated Areas. Journal of Hydrology, 367, 138-149. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.01.002.
  50. Jourdain, D. & Vivithkeyoonvong, S. (2017). Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Irrigated Rice Agriculture in Thailand: a Choice Experiment considering Attribute Nonattendance. Agricultural Economics 48(5), 655–667. doi: 10.1111/agec.12364.
  51. Katano, O., Hosoya, K., Iguchi, K., Yamaguchi, M., Aonuma, Y. & Kitano, S. (2003). Species Diversity and Abundance of Freshwater Fishes in Irrigation Ditches Around Rice Fields. Environmental Biology of Fishes 66(2), 107-121. doi: 10.1023/A:1023678401886.
  52. Kendy, E. & Bredehoeft, J. (2006). Transient Effects of Groundwater Pumping and Surface Water Irrigation Returns on Streamflow. Water Resources Research, 42(8). doi: 10.1029/2005WR004792.
  53. Kijne, J.W., Barker, R. & Molden, D. (Eds.) (2003). Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and Opportunities for Improvement. Vol. 1. CABI.
  54. Kim H.K., Jang, T.I. & Park, S.W. (2009). Estimation of Irrigation Return Fow From Paddy Felds Considering the Soil Moisture. Agricultural Water Management, 96(5), 875-882. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2008.11.009.
  55. Laureti, T., Benedetti, I., & Branca, G. (2020). Water use efficiency and public goods conservation: a spatial stochastic frontier model applied to irrigation in Southern Italy. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 100856. doi: 10.1016/j.seps.2020.100856.
  56. Lipton, M. (2001). Challenges to Meet: Food and Nutrition Security in the New Millennium. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60(2), 203-214. doi: 10.1079/PNS200084.
  57. Lu, X., Jin, M., van Genuchten, M.T. & Wang, B. (2010). Groundwater Recharge at Five Representative Sites in the Hebei Plain, China. National Groundwater Association, 49(2), 286-294. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2009.00667.x.
  58. Maltchik, L., Rolon, A.S., Stenert, C., Machado, I.F. & Rocha, O. (2011). Can Rice Field Channels Contribute to Biodiversity Conservation in Southern Brazilian Wetlands? Revista de Biología Tropical, (59), 1895-1914.
  59. Maréchal, J.C., Galeazzi, L. & Dewandel, B. (2003). Importance of Irrigation Return Flow on the Groundwater Budget of a Rural Basin in India. In Hydrology of Mediterranean and Semiarid Regions: Papers Selected for the International Conference on Hydrology of the Mediterranean and Semi-Arid Regions, Held in Montpellier, France from 1 to 4 April 2003 (No. 278, p. 62). International Association of Hydrological Sciences.
  60. Mastrorilli, M. & Zucaro, R. (2016). Towards Sustainable Use of Water in Rainfed and Irrigated Cropping Systems: Review of Some Technical and Policy Issues. aims Agriculture and Food, 1(3), 294-314. doi: 10.3934/agrfood.2016.3.294.
  61. Mazerolle, M.C., 2004. Drainage Ditches Facilitate Frog Movements in a Hostile Landscape. Landscape Ecology, 20(5), 579-590. doi: 10.1007/s10980-004-3977-6 MEA, 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water synthesis. World
  62. Resources Institute.
  63. Molden, D., Oweis, T., Steduto, P., Bindraban, P. Hanjra, M.A. & Kijne, J. (2010). Improving Agricultural Water Productivity: Between Optimism and Caution. Agricultural Water Management, 97(4), 528-535. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2009.03.023.
  64. Namara, R.E., Hanjra, M.A., Castillo, G., Ravnborg, H.M., Smith, L. & Van Koppen, B. (2010). Agricultural Water Management and Poverty Linkages. Agricultural Water Management, 97(4), 520-527. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2009.05.007.
  65. Namara, R.E, Awuni, J.A., Barry, B, Giordano, M., Hope, L., Owusu, E.S. & Forkuour, G. (2011). Smallholder Shallow Groundwater Irrigation Development in the Upper East Region of Ghana (Vol. 143). IWMI.
  66. Olsson, A., Campana, P.E., Lind, M. & Yan, J. (2014). Potential for Carbon Sequestration and Mitigation of Climate Change by Irrigation of Grasslands. Applied Energy, 136, 1145-1154. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.08.025.
  67. Perry, C.J., Rock, M. & Seckler, D. (1997). Water as An Economic Good: A Solution, or a Problem? (Vol. 14). IWMI.
  68. Poch-Massegú, R., Jiménez-Martínez J., Wallis K.J., Ramírez de Cartagena, F., & Candela, L. (2014). Irrigation Return Fow and Nitrate Leaching Under Different Crops and Irrigation Methods in Western Mediterranean Weather Conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 134, 1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2013.11.017.
  69. Power, A.G. (2010). Ecosystem Services and Agriculture: Tradeoffs and Synergies.
  70. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 365(1554), 2959-2971. doi:
  71. 1098/rstb.2010.0143.
  72. Rahman, M.W. & Parvin, L. (2009). Impact of Irrigation on Food Security in Bangladesh for the Past Three Decades. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 1(3), 216-225. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.13027.
  73. Renault, D. & Montginoul, M. (2003). Positive Externalities and Water Service Management in Rice-Based Irrigation Systems of the Humid Tropics. Agricultural Water Management, 59(3), 171-189. doi: 10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00135-X.
  74. Sánchez-Sánchez, M.A., García-Marín, R. & Moreno-Muñoz, D. (2016). Paisajes del agua en el Valle de Ricote (Región de Murcia, España): Historia, presente y futuro. In Nunes, A., Oliveira Moreira, C., Rodrigues Pavia, I. & Sobral da Cunha, L. (Eds). Territórios de Água (pp. 246-254). Coimbra: cegot (Centro de Estudios de Geografía e Ordenamento do Territorio).
  75. Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Anandón, J.D., Carrete, M., Giménez, A., Navarro, J., Villacorta, C. & Botella, F. (2005). Breeding Waterbirds In Relation to Artificial Pond Attributes: Implications for the Design of Irrigation Facilities. Biodiversity and Conservation 14(7), 1627-1639. doi: 10.1007/s10531-004-0534-1.
  76. Sayadi, S., Gonzalez Roa, C. & Calatrava Requena, J. (2005). Ranking versus Scale Rating in Conjoint Analysis: Evaluating Landscapes in Mountainous Regions in Southeastern Spain. Ecological Economics, 55(4), 539-550. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.12.010.
  77. Sayadi, S., González-Roa, M.C. & Calatrava-Requena, J. (2009). Public Preferences for Landscape Features: The Case of Agricultural Landscape in Mountainous Mediterranean Areas. Land Use Policy, 26(2), 334-344. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2008.04.003.
  78. Sebastián-González, E., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., & Botella, F. (2010). Agricultural Ponds as Alternative Habitat for Waterbirds: Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Abundant and Management Strategies. European Journal of Wildlife Research 56(1), 11-20. doi: 10.1007/s10344-009-0288-x.
  79. Séraphin, P., Vallet-Coulomb, C. & Gonçalvès, J. (2016). Partitioning Groundwater Recharge Between Rainfall Infiltration and Irrigation Return Fow Using Stable Isotopes: The Crau Aquifer. Journal of Hydrology, 542, 241-253. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.09.005.
  80. Silva-Hidalgo, H., Martín-Domínguez, I.R., Alarcón-Herrera, M.T. & Granados-Olivas, A. (2008). Natural Flows Determination in Gauged Hydrological Basins. Part I: Alternative Method for Irrigation Return Flows Estimation. Proceedings of the 13th IWRA World Water Congress, 1-4 September, Montpellier, France.
  81. Singh, A. (2016). Hydrological Problems of Water Resources in Irrigated Agriculture: A Management Perspective. Journal of Hydrology, 541, 1430-1440. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.08.044.
  82. Singh, A. (2018). Salinization of Agricultural Lands Due to Poor Drainage: A Viewpoint. Ecological Indicators, 95, 127-130. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.07.037.
  83. Smith, L.E.D. (2004). Assessment of the Contribution of Irrigation to Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Livelihoods. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 20(2), 243-257. doi: 10.1080/0790062042000206084.
  84. Spangeberg, J.H. & Settele, J. (2010). Precisely incorrect? Monetising the Value of Ecosystem Services. Ecological Complexity, 7(3), 327-337. doi: 10.1016/j.ecocom.2010.04.007.
  85. Tekken, V., Spangenberg, J.H., Burkhard, B., Escalada, M., Stoll-Kleemann, S., Thanh
  86. Truong, D. & Settele J. (2017). ‘‘Things Are Different Now”: Farmer Perceptions of Cultural Ecosystem Services of Traditional Rice Landscapes in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ecosystem Services 25, 153-166. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.010.
  87. Tesfaye, A., Bogale, A., Namara, R.E. & Bacha, D. (2008). The Impact of Small-Scale Irrigation on Household Food Security: The Case of Filtino and Godino Irrigation Schemes in Ethiopia. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 22(2), 145-158. doi: 10.1007/s10795-008-9047-5.
  88. Tietenberg, T. & Lewis, L. (2012). Environmental & Natural Resource Economics. New York: Routledge.
  89. Thiene, M. & Tsur, Y. (2013). Agricultural Landscape Value and Irrigation Water Policy.
  90. Journal of Agricultural Economics 64(3), 641-653. doi: 10.1111/1477-9552.12016.
  91. Törnqvist, R., Jarsjö, J., Thorslund, J., Rao, P.C.S., Basu, N.B. & Destouni, G. (2015).
  92. Mechanisms of Basin-Scale Nitrogen Load Reductions under Intensified Irrigated Agriculture. PLoS ONE, 10(3), doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120015.
  93. Trost, B., Prochnow, A., Drastig, K., Meyer-Aurich, A., Ellmer, F. & Baumecker, M. (2013). Irrigation, Soil Organic Carbon and N2O Emissions. A Review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33(4), 733-749. doi: 10.1007/s13593-013-0134-0.
  94. Turner, K., Pearce, D.W. & Bateman, I., (1994). Environmental Economics. An Elementary Introduction. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
  95. Turral, H., Burke, J. & Faurès, J.M. (2011). Climate change, water and food security.
  96. Rome: FAO.
  97. UN (2010). General Assembly resolution 64/292, The human right to water and sanitation, A/RES/64/292 (28 July 2010).
  98. UN (2019). World Population Prospects 2019: Highlights. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. ST/ESA/SER.A/423. New York: United Nations.
  99. van Schilfgaarde, J. (1994). Irrigation - A Blessing Or a Curse. Agricultural Water
  100. Management, 25(3), 203-219. doi: 10.1016/0378-3774(94)90061-2.
  101. Vivithkeyoonvong, S. & Jourdain, D. (2017). Willingness to Pay for Ecosystem Services Provided by Irrigated Agriculture in Northeast Thailand. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 13(1), 14-26. doi: 10.1080/21513732.2016.1242093.
  102. Wu, L. Wood, Li, L. Pan, Lu. J. Chang & Enloe, H.A. (2008). Carbon Sequestration and Dynamics of Two Irrigated Agricultural Soils in California. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 72(3), 808-814. doi: 10.2136/sssaj2007.0074.
  103. WWAP (2017). Wastewater: The Untapped Resource. The United Nations World Water
  104. Development Report 2017. Paris: unesco (World Water Assessment Programme).
  105. Zekri, S., Mbaga, M. & Fouzai, A. (2012). Complementarity Between Agriculture and Tourism Towards Sustainability. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(10), 482-493. doi: 10.3923/ijar.2012.482.493.
  106. Zhang, W., Ricketts, T.H., Kremen, C., Carney, K. & Swinton, S.M. (2007). Ecosystem
  107. services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics, 64(2), 253-260. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.02.024.
  108. Zucaro, R. (Ed.) (2014). Condizionalità Ex-Ante per le Risorse Idriche: Opportunità
  109. e Vincoli per il Mondo Agricolo. Rome: INEA.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...