A methodological proposal for the estimation of the Standard Output of dog breeding. A study case from Italy
In countries with a post-industrial economy, where agriculture evolves towards rural development, canine breeding can be a good opportunity to integrate agricultural income. Despite this and despite being an agricultural activity in all respects, cynophilia is not contemplated among the productive activities for which the calculation of Standard Output is envisaged, an economic variable set by the EU to measure the economic size of farms aimed at the granting of aid. Considering the inconvenience that this causes to canine breeders, the present contribution proposes a methodology for estimating the variable under examination consistent with the community legislation and based on a method of breeding that meets the
principles of animal welfare. As dog breeding is not intended for production of food or other material goods other than puppies, its production cycle is not suitable for a subdivision based on homogeneous categories of age or weight, as occurs in traditional farms. The consistency with the community legislation, which is realized in the quantification of the annual production of the breeding, has therefore been obtained by means of the financial discounting of the costs and revenues obtainable throughout the entire production cycle and in calculation of their annual share. The compliance of the breeding technique with the principles of animal well-being, on the other hand, stems from compliance with the rules laid down in the Ethical code of the breeder of dogs prepared by Enci – Ente Nazionale della Cinofilia Italiana (Italian National Body for Cynophilia). The data needed to estimate the costs and revenues associated with dog breeding are almost completely available online and the results obtained are congruous and very interesting.
- Anselmi, G. (2015). Il prezzo del padre. Il valore della monta e il suo pagamento. I nostri cani, 61(5), 20-22.
- Bailoni, L. (2013). Nutrizione e alimentazione animale. -- Available on www.google.com/search?q=15.+Lezione+13_fabbaccrescimento&rlz=1C1GCEU_itIT875IT875&oq=15.%09Lezione+13_fabbaccrescimento&aqs=chrome..69i57j33.3490j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8.
- Beuchat, C. (2015). Estimating the breeding value of a dog. The Institute of Canine Biology. -- Available on www.instituteofcaninebiology.org/blog/how-can-youestimate-the-breeding-value-of-a-dog.
- Borge, K.S., Tonnessen, R., Nodtvedt, A. & Indrebo, A. (2011). Litter size at birth in purebred dogs - A retrospective study of 224 breeds. Theriogenology, 75(5), 911-919, doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.10.034.
- Cani.Com (2019). -- Available on www.cani.com/razze-di-cani.
- Einleger, A. (2017). Lifespan of a dog: a dog year chart by breed. How long should you expect your dog to live? PetCareRx. -- Available on www.petcarerx.com/article/lifespan-of-a-dog-a dog-years-chart-by-breed/1223.
- Enci (2019a). Breeders register. -- Available on www.enci.it/libro-genealogico/registro-allevatori.pdf.
- Enci (2019b). Ethical code of the breeder of dogs. -- Available on www.enci.it/ media/2115/f-7249_01.pdf.
- European Commission (1985). Commission Decision of 7 June 1985 (85/377/EEC). OJ L. 220, 17.8.85.
- European Commission (2014). Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 807/2014
- of 11 March 2014, OJ L. 227, 31.7.2014.
- European Commission (2008). Commission Regulation (EC) No 1242/2008 of 8 December 2008, OJ L. 335, 13.12.2008.
- Evans, K.M. & Adams, V.J. (2010). Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by caesarean section. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 51, 113-118, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00902.x.
- Feuer, D. (2006). Yours dog’s nutritional needs. A Science-Based Guide For Pet Owners. National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences.
- GreenStyle, Amstaff (American Staffordshire Terrier): aspetto, indole e costo. -- Available on www.greenstyle.it/cani/american-staffordshire-terrier.
- Hill’s Pet. (2019). Razza canina Golden Retriever, Informazioni e tratti della personalità. -- Available on www.hillspet.it/dog-care/dog-breeds/golden-retriever.
- Ideegreen. (2019). -- Available on www.ideegreen.it/elenco-razze-di-cani-51687.html.
- Indrebo, A. (2008). Animal welfare in modern dog breeding. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 50(Suppl 1): S6, doi: 10.1186/1751-0147-50-S1-S6.
- Kaygisiz, F. & Ograk, Y.Z. (2008). Cost and Productivity Analysis for Puppy Production in Kangal Race Dog Production Companies in Sivas. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 7(10), 1273-1275.
- Mari, F. & Rossi, R. (2010). inea methodology for calculating the Standard Output of livestock production. Applied to the three-year period 2003-2005. -- Available on http://dspace.crea.gov.it/bitstream/inea/241/1/RICA%20-%20RLS_English_DEF_Layout%201.pdf.
- Quale,it. (2018). Spese veterinarie 2018: quali sono? -- Available on www.quale.it/ assicurazioni/news-assicurazioni/spese-veterinarie-2018-quali-sono/.
- Rossi, V. & Ferretti, D. (2014). Statistiche enci: 11 anni a confronto. -- Available on www.tipresentoilcane.com/2014/06/25/statistiche-enci-2013-11-anni-a-confronto/.
- Sapevatelo. (2017). Quali sono le razze canine più diffuse in Italia? National Geographic
- Italia. -- Available on www.nationalgeographic.it/natura/animali/2017/02/17/news/quali_sono_le_razze_di_cani_piu_diffuse_in_Italia.
- Tonnessen, R., Sverdrup Borge, K., Nodtvedt, A. & Indrebo, A. (2012). Canine perinatal mortality: a cohort study of 224 breeds. Theriogenology, 77, 1788-1801, doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.12.0324.
- Tuttogreen (2019). -- Available on www.tuttogreen.it/animali/cani/.