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Regular Articles

Vol. 22 No. 1 (2020)

A methodological proposal for the estimation of the Standard Output of dog breeding. A study case from Italy

June 22, 2020


In countries with a post-industrial economy, where agriculture evolves towards rural development, canine breeding can be a good opportunity to integrate agricultural income. Despite this and despite being an agricultural activity in all respects, cynophilia is not contemplated among the productive activities for which the calculation of Standard Output is envisaged, an economic variable set by the EU to measure the economic size of farms aimed at the granting of aid. Considering the inconvenience that this causes to canine breeders, the present contribution proposes a methodology for estimating the variable under examination consistent with the community legislation and based on a method of breeding that meets the
principles of animal welfare. As dog breeding is not intended for production of food or other material goods other than puppies, its production cycle is not suitable for a subdivision based on homogeneous categories of age or weight, as occurs in traditional farms. The consistency with the community legislation, which is realized in the quantification of the annual production of the breeding, has therefore been obtained by means of the financial discounting of the costs and revenues obtainable throughout the entire production cycle and in calculation of their annual share. The compliance of the breeding technique with the principles of animal well-being, on the other hand, stems from compliance with the rules laid down in the Ethical code of the breeder of dogs prepared by Enci – Ente Nazionale della Cinofilia Italiana (Italian National Body for Cynophilia). The data needed to estimate the costs and revenues associated with dog breeding are almost completely available online and the results obtained are congruous and very interesting.


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