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La percezione genitoriale dei cambiamenti emotivo-comportamentali nei bambini con disturbo dello spettro autistico, a quattro mesi dall’inizio della pandemia

DOI
https://doi.org/10.3280/rip2022oa13999
Inviata
21 June 2022
Pubblicato
24-06-2022

Abstract

I disturbi dello spettro autistico sono caratterizzati da difficoltà nellʼinterazione socio-comunicativa, dalla presenza di comportamenti e interessi ristretti e ripetitivi. In determinate circostanze, ad esempio durante un periodo di lockdown, quando l’isolamento sociale e il distanziamento diventano obbligatori per tutti, in particolare per le famiglie con un bambino con disturbo dello spettro l’interruzione delle routine quotidiane (scuola, terapia, tempo libero) rischia di minare il lavoro terapeutico e i progressi che faticosamente le famiglie avevano raggiunto fino a quel momento. In questo studio abbiamo monitorato 81 famiglie di bambini con disturbo dello spettro, valutandole prima dell’inizio della pandemia e circa 4 mesi dopo, per verificare quali comportamenti dei bambini fossero peggiorati e quali invece fossero rimasti stabili o anche migliorati. Le famiglie sono state intervistate, a febbraio e luglio 2020, attraverso rating scale standardizzate e i risultati hanno evidenziato un intensificarsi nei bambini di irrequietezza motoria, difficoltà nella regolazione del sonno, mentre non sono emersi peggioramenti nelle condotte autolesive o etero-aggressive, né nelle autonomie personali. Va considerato che tutte le famiglie coinvolte nella presente ricerca erano inserite in percorsi terapeutici e non hanno interrotto il percorso di supporto psicologico (online), con lo specifico obiettivo di sostenerli nel loro ruolo genitoriale nelle fasi più critiche vissute dai bambini, e nel renderli sempre più attivi nei processi di consolidamento delle competenze acquisite dai bambini.

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