Identity processes in marketing: Relationship between image and personality of tourist destination, destination self congruity and behavioral responses
AbstractThere are few works in literature that study the relationship between tourist destination image and tourist destination personality. The present study starting from the relationship between image and personality tries to analyze how this relationship can strengthen the identification of tourists with the destination itself and consequently behavioral responses. The results will highlight a strong impact of image on some personality traits of the destination and how these personality traits have an effect on the the effective, ideal, social and social ideal destination self congruity and on the intentions of return and word of mouth. The work ends with a discussion on the theoretical and managerial implications in terms of destination branding strategies.
Aaker J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34: 347-356.
Aaker J. L. (1999). The malleable self: The role of self-expression in persuasion. Journal of Marketing Research, 36: 45-57.
Aiello G., Donvito R. and Ewing M. T. (2015). Country image and Brand Image: An International Investigation of Made in Italy. In: Dato-on M. (eds). The Sustainable Global Marketplace. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceeding of the Academy of Marketing Science. Cham.: Springer.
Alcañiz E. B., García I. S. and Blas S. S. (2005). Relationships among residents’ image, evaluation of the stay and post-purchase behavior, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11(4): 291-302.
Anholth S. (2006). The Anholt-GMI City Brands Index: How the world sees the world’s cities. Place Branding, 2(1): 18-31.
Baloglu S. and McCleary K. W. (1999a). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4): 868-897.
Baloglu S. and McCleary K. W. (1999b). U.S. International Pleasure Travelers’ Images of Four Mediterranean Destinations: A Comparison of Visitors and Nonvisitors. Journal of Travel Research, 38(2): 144-152.
Beerli S. and Martín J. D. (2004). Factors influencing destination image. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3): 657-681.
Beerli A., Meneses G. D. and Gil S. M. (2007). Self-congruity and destination choice. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(3): 571-587.
Belk R. W. (1988). Possessions and the extended self. Journal of Consumer Research,
Bigné J. E., Sánchez M. I. and Sánchez J. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables
and after purchase behavior: inter-relationship. Tourism Management, 22(6): 607-616.
Boksberger P., Dolnicar S., Laesser C. and Randle M. (2011). Self Congruity Theory: To What Extent Does It Hold in Tourism?. Journal of Travel Research, 50(4): 454-464.
Bové-Sans M. À. and Laguado-Ramirez R. (2012). Quantitative Analysis of Image Factors in a Cultural Heritage Tourist Destination, GRIT – Department d’Economia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
Cai L. A. (2002). Cooperative branding for rural destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(3): 720-742.
Carroll B. A. and Ahuvia A. C. (2006). Some Antecedents and Outcomes of Brand Love, Marketing Letters, 17(2): 79-89.
Casalegno C. and Viassone M. (2012). The measure of a destination image: the case
of Turin. In: Proceedings of the 1st Enlightening Tourism Conference 2012. Naples, 13th-14th September 2012, p. 209-229, Naples: Enzo Albano Editore.
Chen C. F. and Tsai D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect
behavioral intentions? Tourism Management, 28(4):1115-1122.
Chon K. S. (1990). The role of destination image in tourism: A review and discussion.
Tourist Review, 45(2): 2-9.
Chon K. S. (1991). Tourism destination image modification process. Tourism Management, 12(1): 68-72.
Chon K. S. (1992). Self-image/destination image congruity. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(2): 360-363.
D’Astous A. and Boujbel L. (2007). Positioning countries on personality dimensions:
Scale development and implications for country marketing. Journal of Business Research, 60: 231-239.
Digman J. M. (1990). Personality structure: emergence of the five factor model. Annual
Review Psychology, 41: 417-440.
Dioguardi V. (2009). L’Immagine della Destinazione Turistica come Costruzione Sociale. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
Donnellan M. B., Oswald F. L., Baird B. M. and Lucas R. E. (2006). The Mini-IPIP Scales: Tiny-Yet-Effective Measures of the Big Five Factors of Personality. Psychological
Assessment, 18 (2): 192-203.
Echtner C. M. and Ritchie J. R. B. (1991). The Meaning and Measurement of Destination
Image, Journal of Travel Studies, 2(2): 2-12.
Echtner C. M. and Ritchie J. R. B. (2003). The Meaning and Measurement of Destination
Image, Journal of Tourism Studies, 14(1): 37-48.
Ekinci Y. and Hosany S. (2006). Destination personality: An application of brand personality to tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 45: 127-139.
Ekinci Y., Sirakaya-Turk E. and Baloglu S. (2007). Host image and destination personality. Tourism Analysis, 12: 433-446.
Elliot S. and Papadopoulos N. (2016). Of products and tourism destinations: an integrative, cross-national study of place image, Journal of Business Research, 69(3): 1157-1165.
Ericksen M. K. and Sirgy M. J. (1992). Employed Females’ Clothing Preference, Self Image Congruence, and Career Anchorage. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(5): 408-422.
Ericksen M. K. (1997). Using Self-congruity and Ideal Congruity to Predict Purchase
Intention. Journal of Euromarketing, 6(1): 45-56.
Escalas J. E. and Bettman J. R. (2003). You Are What They Eat: The Influence of
Reference Groups on Consumer Connection to Brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(3): 339-348.
Fiocca R., Marino A. and Testori M. (2007). Brand management. Valori e relazioni nella gestione della marca. Milano: Rizzoli Etas.
Fournier S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24: 343-373.
Freling T. H. and Forbes L. P. (2005). An empirical analysis of the brand personality
effect. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14(1): 404-413.
Govers R. and Go F. M. (2004). Cultural identities constructed, imagined and experienced: A 3-gap tourism destination image model. Tourism, 52(2): 165-182.
Graeff T. R. (1997). Consumption situations and the effects of brand image on consumers’ brand evaluations. Psychology & Marketing, 14(1): 49-70.
Guido G., Peluso A. M., Prete M. I., Amatulli C., Pino G. and Pace C. (2012). Customer-
centric strategies in place marketing. An analysis of places’ identities and perceived images. In: Kauffman H. R. and Khan Panni M. F. A. (eds). Customer Centric Marketing Strategies: Tools for Building Organizational Performance. Hershey: IGI Global.
Hawkins D. I., Best R. J. and Coney K. A. (2003). Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, Nona Edizione. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Hogg M. A. and Abrams D. (1988). Social Identification: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. London: Routledge.
Hogg M. K., Cox A. J. and Keeling K. (2000). The impact of self‐monitoring on image congruence and product/brand evaluation. European Journal of Marketing, 34(5/6): 641-667.
Hosany S., Ekinci Y. and Uysal M. (2006). Destination image and destination personality: An application of branding theories to tourism places. Journal of Business
Research, 59: 638-642.
Hosany S., Ekinci Y. and Uysal M. (2007). Destination image and destination personality. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research,
Hultman M., Skarmeas D., Oghazi P. and Beheshti H. M. (2015). Achieving tourist
loyalty through destination personality, satisfaction, and identification. Journal of Business Research, 68(11): 2227-2231.
Husakly A. and Baloglu S. (2011). Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory. Tourism Management, 32: 114-127.
Jalilvand M. R., Samiei N., Dini B. and Yaghoubi Manzari P. (2012). Examining the
structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention: An integrated approach. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1(1e2): 134-143.
Jamal A. and Goode M.M.K. (2001). Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 19(7): 482-492.
Jenkins O. H. (1999). Understanding and measuring tourist destination images. International Journal of Tourism Research, I: 1-15.
Johar J. S. and Sirgy M. J. (1991). Value-Expressive versus Utilitarian Advertising
Appeals: When and Why to Use Which Appeal. Journal of Advertising, 20(3): 23-33.
Kastenholz E. (2004). Assessment and role of destination-self-congruity. Annals of
Tourism Research, 31(3): 719-723.
Keller K. L., Busacca B. and Ostillio M. C. (2005). La gestione del brand. Strategie e sviluppo. Milano: Egea.
Kim H. B. and Lee S. (2015). Impacts of city personality and image on revisit intention.
International. Journal of Tourism Cities, 1(1): 50-69.
Kotler P. (2002). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and
Control. New York: Prentice Hall.
Kotler P. and Gertner D. (2004). The country as brand, product and beyond: A place
marketing and brand management perspective. In: Morgan N., Pritchard A., & Pride R. (Eds.). Destination branding: Creating the unique destination proposition (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier.
Kvasova O. (2015). The big five personality traits as antecedents of eco-friendly tourist behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 83: 111-116.
Low G. S. and Lamb C. W. (2000). The measurement and dimensionality of brand
associations. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 9(6): 350-368.
Marchiori E. and Önder I. (2015). Reframing the Image of A Destination: A Pre-
Post Study on Social Media Exposure. In; Tussyadiah I., Inversini A. (eds.). Information
and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2015. Switzerland: Springer, 335-347.
McCrae R. R. and Costa P. T. Jr. (1985). Comparison of EPI and psychoticism scales
with measures of the five-factor model of personality. Personality and Individual
Differences, 6: 587-597.
McCrae R. R. and John O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60: 175-216.
Mehta A. (1999). Using Self-Concept to Assess Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research, 39(1): 81-89.
Mittal B. (2006). I, me, and mine – how products become consumers’ extended selves. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 5: 550-562.
Morgan N., Pritchard A. and Pride R. (2004). Destination branding: Creating the unique destination proposition (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier.
Murphy L., Moscardo G. and Benckendorff P. (2007). Using brand personality to differentiate regional tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 46: 5-14.
Nunnally J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory, second ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Papadopulos N., Elliot S. and Szamosi L. (2013). Studying place image: an interdisciplinary and holistic approach. Journal of Tourism and Hospitability Research,
Pike S. and Ryan C. (2004). Destination positioning analysis through a comparison
of cognitive, affective, and conative perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 42:
Pool J. K., Khodadadi M. and Asadi A. (2018). The impact of congruence between self-concept and destination personality on behavioural intentions for visiting an Islamic-historical destination. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 18(3): 378-387.
Pratesi C. A. and Mattia G. (2006). Branding. Strategie, organizzazione, comunicazione
e ricerca per la marca. Milano: McGraw-Hill Education.
Qu H., Kim L. H. and Im H. H. (2011). A model of destination branding: Integrating the concepts of the branding and destination image. Tourism Management, 32(3): 65-476.
Reed II A. (2002). Social identity as a useful perspective for self concept based consumer research. Psychology & Marketing, 19(3): 235-266.
Rosenberg M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Russell J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 39(6): 1161-1178.
Schenk C. T. and Holman R. H. (1980). A sociological approach to brand choice: The concept of situational self-image. Advances in Consumer Research, 7(1): 610-614.
Schmitt B. (1999). Experiential Marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 15:
Shin Y. H., Hancer M. and Song J. H. (2016). Self-Congruity and the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Prediction of Local Food Purchase. Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, 28(4): 330-345.
Sirgy M. J. (1982). Self-concept in consumer behavior: A critical review. Journal of
Consumer Research, 9: 287-300.
Sirgy M. J. (1985). Self-image/product-image congruity and consumer decision making. International Journal of Management, 2: 49-63.
Sirgy M. J., Efraty D., Siegel P. and Lee D. J. (2001). A new measure of quality of work life (QWL) based on need satisfaction and spillover theories. Social indicators research, 55(3): 241-302.
Sirgy M. J., Grewal D., Mangleburg T. F., Park J., Chon K., Claiborne C. B. et al. (1997). Assessing the predictive validity of two methods of measuring self-image congruence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(3): 229-241.
Sirgy M. J., Johar J. S., Samli A. C. and Claiborne C. B. (1991). Self-congruity versus
functional congruity: Predictors of consumer behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(4): 363-375.
Sirgy M. J., Lee D. J., Johar J. S. and Tidwell J. (2008). Effect of self-congruity with
sponsorship on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 61: 1091-1097.
Sirgy M. J. and Su C. (2000). Destination image, self-congruity, and travel behavior:
Toward an integrative model. Journal of Travel Research, 38: 340-352.
Souiden N., Ladhari R. and Chiadmi N. E. (2017). Destination personality and destination image, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32: 54-70.
Stokes D. (2000). Putting Entrepreneurship into Marketing: The Processes of Entrepreneurial Marketing. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 2(1): 1-16.
Tapachai N. and Waryszak R. (2000). An examination of the role of beneficial image in tourist destination selection, Journal of Travel Research, 39(1): 37-44.
Tasci A. D. A. and Kozak M. (2006). Destination brands vs destination images: Do we know what we mean? Journal of Vacation Marketing, J2(4): 299-317.
Teller C. and Reutterer T. (2008). The evolving concept of retail attractiveness: what
makes retail agglomerations attractive when customers shop at them? Journal of
Retailing and Consumer Services, 15: 127-143.
Yoon Y. and Uysal M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: A structural model. Tourism Management, 26(1): 45-56.
Xie K. L. and Lee J. S. (2013). Toward the perspective of cognitive destination image
and destination personality: the case of Beijing. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(6): 538-556.
Zimbardo P. G. and Boyd J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable
individual differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77: 1271-1288.