Salta al menu principale di navigazione Salta al contenuto principale Salta al piè di pagina del sito


N. 1 (2023)

Emotions, social support and positive resources during Covid-19 pandemic: A qualitative-quantitative survey among italian adolescents

4 ottobre 2023


Covid-19 pandemic had a massive impact on adolescents. The present study illustrates an online survey administered to N = 861 Italian adolescents (mean age = 15.81 years; females 58%), asking them about: (i) the most frequent negative emotions during the pandemic; (ii) the main sources of social support; (iii) whether they had also experienced positive emotions; (iv) in which lifedomains they had experienced positive emotions. The results reveal that adolescents experienced boredom, sadness, fear, and agitation as negative emotions. The respondents reported family, friends and themselves as sources of social support. The main life-domains in which adolescents experienced positive emotions were: new discoveries in self-awareness, inner growth, relational skills. This study highlights that the pandemic has elicited positive resources (e.g., resilience, creativity and generativity) in adolescents, laying the foundations for interventions, in developmental and educational psychology, that are not top-down but bottom-up.

Riferimenti bibliografici

  1. Ahmed, S. P., Bittencourt-Hewitt, A., & Sebastian, C. L. (2015). Neurocognitive bases of emotion regulation development in adolescence. Developmental cognitive neuroscience, 15, 11-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2015.07.006.
  2. Almeida, I., Rego, J. F., Teixeira, A., & Moreira, M. R. (2021). Social isolation and its impact on child and adolescent development: a systematic review. Revista paulista de pediatria : orgao oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de Sao Paulo, 40, e2020385. DOI: 10.1590/1984-0462/2022/40/2020385.
  3. Amorós-Reche, V., Belzunegui-Pastor, À., Hurtado, G., & Espada, J. P. (2022). Emotional Problems in Spanish Children and Adolescents during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. Clinical and Health, 33(1), 19-28. DOI: 10.5093/clysa2022a2.
  4. Babore, A., Morelli, M., & Trumello, C. (2022). Italian adolescents’ adjustment before and during the coronavirus disease 2019: A comparison between mothers’ and adolescents’ perception. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(2), 281-286. DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12334.
  5. Barker, G. (2007). Adolescents, social support and help-seeking behaviour: an international literature review and programme consultation with recommendations for action.
  6. Beetz, A., Uvnäs-Moberg, K., Julius, H., & Kotrschal, K. (2012). Psychosocial and psychophysiological effects of human-animal interactions: the possible role of oxytocin. Frontiers in psychology, 3, 234. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00234.
  7. Bermejo-Martins, E., Luis, E. O., Fernández-Berrocal, P., Martínez, M., & Sarrionandia, A. (2021). The role of emotional intelligence and self-care in the stress perception during COVID-19 outbreak: An intercultural moderated mediation analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 177, 110679. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2021.110679.
  8. Bhatia, R. (2020). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on child and adolescent mental health. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 33(6), 568-570. DOI: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000651.
  9. Bhattacharya, N., Choudhury, S., Roychowdhury, M., Sinha, M., Mistri, P., Bhattacharya, R., et al. (2022). ‘Art at Safe Homesʼ: a pioneer study among COVID patients and their treatment Team. J. Prev. Assess. Rehabil. 2022, 211220. DOI: 10.3233/WOR-211220.
  10. Blakemore, S. J., & Mills, K. L. (2014). Is adolescence a sensitive period for sociocultural processing. Annual review of psychology, 65(1), 187-207. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115202.
  11. Branje, S., & Morris, A. S. (2021). The impact of the COVID- 19 pandemic on adolescent emotional, social, and academic adjustment. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 31(3), 486-499. DOI: 10.1111/jora.12668.
  12. Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101. DOI: 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.
  13. Brown, G., & Greenfield, P. M. (2021). Staying connected during stay-athome: Communication with family and friends and its association with wellbeing. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 3(1), 147-156. DOI: 10.1002/hbe2.246.
  14. Camara, M., Bacigalupe, G., & Padilla, P. (2017). The role of social support in adolescents: are you helping me or stressing me out?. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 22(2), 123-136. DOI: 10.1080/02673843.2013.875480.
  15. Campione-Barr, N., Rote, W., Killoren, S. E., & Rose, A. J. (2021). Adolescent adjustment during COVID- 19: The role of close relationships and COVID-19-related stress. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 31(3), 608-622. DOI: 10.1111/jora.12647.
  16. Cauberghe, V., Van Wesenbeeck, I., De Jans, S., Hudders, L., & Ponnet, K. (2021). How adolescents use social media to cope with feelings of loneliness and anxiety during COVID-19 lockdown. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 24(4), 250-257. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2020.0478.
  17. Cavallini, E., Rosi, A., van Vugt, F. T., Ceccato, I., Rapisarda, F., Vallarino, M., ... & Lecce, S. (2021). Closeness to friends explains age differences in positive emotional experience during the lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 33(9), 2623-2631. DOI: 10.1007/s40520-021-01927-7.
  18. Chu, P. S., Saucier, D. A., & Hafner, E. (2010). Meta-analysis of the relationships between social support and well-being in children and adolescents. Journal of social and clinical psychology, 29(6), 624-645. DOI: 10.1521/jscp.2010.29.6.624.
  19. Commodari, E., & La Rosa, V. L. (2020). Adolescents in quarantine during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy: perceived health risk, beliefs, psychological experiences and expectations for the future. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 559951. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.559951.
  20. Crone, E. A., & Dahl, R. E. (2012). Understanding adolescence as a period of social-affective engagement and goal flexibility. Nature reviews neuroscience, 13(9), 636-650. DOI: 10.1038/nrn3313.
  21. Cummings, C., Humiston, T., Cohen, L. B., & Lansing, A. H. (2022). The role of COVID-19 fears and related behaviors in understanding daily adolescent health behaviors during the pandemic. Journal of Health Psychology, 27(6), 1354-1364. DOI: 10.1177/13591053211044533.
  22. Cyrulnik, B. (2001). Manifeste pour la résilience. Spirale, (2), 77-82. DOI: 10.3917/spi.018.0077.
  23. Datu, J. A. D., Valdez, J. P. M., McInerney, D. M., & Cayubit, R. F. (2022). The effects of gratitude and kindness on life satisfaction, positive emotions, negative emotions, and COVID- 19 anxiety: An online pilot experimental study. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 14(2), 347-361. DOI: 10.1111/aphw.12306.
  24. Di Giuseppe, T., Paoletti, P., P., Pavoncello, D., & & Serantoni, G. (2016). I giovani e il lavoro: prospettive e ricerca di senso. Ricerca di Senso, 3, 215-248.
  25. Dicken, C. (1963). Good impression, social desirability, and acquiescence as suppressor variables. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 23(4), 699-720. DOI: 10.1177/2F001316446302300406.
  26. Diotaiuti, P., Girelli, L., Mancone, S., Corrado, S., Valente, G., & Cavicchiolo, E. (2022). impulsivity and depressive brooding in internet addiction: A study with a sample of italian adolescents during covid-19 lockdown. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13. DOI: 10.3389/2Ffpsyt.2022.941313.
  27. Dumont, M., & Provost, M. A. (1999). Resilience in adolescents: Protective role of social support, coping strategies, self-esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression. Journal of youth and adolescence, 28(3), 343-363. DOI: 10.1023/A:1021637011732.
  28. Dvorsky, M. R., Breaux, R., & Becker, S. P. (2021). Finding ordinary magic in extraordinary times: child and adolescent resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 30(11), 1829-1831. DOI: 10.1007/s00787-020-01583-8.
  29. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton. Evli, M., & Şimşek, N. (2022). The effect of COVID-19 uncertainty on internet addiction, happiness and life satisfaction in adolescents. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. DOI: 10.1016/j.apnu.2022.07.008.
  30. Fergus, S., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2005). ADOLESCENT RESILIENCE: A Framework for. Annual Reviews of Public Health, 26, 399-419. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144357.
  31. Ferrer, E., & McArdle, J. J. (2010). Longitudinal modeling of developmental changes in psychological research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(3), 149-154. DOI: 10.1177/0963721410370300.
  32. Gabbiadini, A., Baldissarri, C., Durante, F., Valtorta, R. R., De Rosa, M., & Gallucci, M. (2020). Together apart: the mitigating role of digital communication technologies on negative affect during the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 554678. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.554678.
  33. Garmezy, N. & Masten, A. (1994). Chronic Adversities. In M. Rutter, E. Taylor, & L. Herson (Orgs.). Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (pp. 191-207). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.
  34. Gentzler, A. L., Palmer, C. A., & Ramsey, M. A. (2016). Savoring with intent: Investigating types of and motives for responses to positive events. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(3), 937-958. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-015-9625-9.
  35. Giardina, A., Di Blasi, M., Schimmenti, A., King, D. L., Starcevic, V., & Billieux, J. (2021). Online gaming and prolonged self-isolation: evidence from Italian gamers during the COVID-19 outbreak. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 18(1), 65. DOI: 10.36131/2Fcnfioritieditore20210106.
  36. González-Valero, G., Zurita-Ortega, F., Lindell-Postigo, D., Conde-Pipó, J., Grosz, W. R., & Badicu, G. (2020). Analysis of self-concept in adolescents before and during COVID-19 lockdown: Differences by gender and sports activity. Sustainability, 12(18), 7792. DOI: 10.3390/su12187792.
  37. Green, K. H., van de Groep, S., Sweijen, S. W., Becht, A. I., Buijzen, M., de Leeuw, R. N., ... & Crone, E. A. (2021). Mood and emotional reactivity of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: short-term and long-term effects and the impact of social and socioeconomic stressors. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-13. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-90851-x.
  38. Grotberg, E. H. (1995). A guide to promoting resilience in children: Strengthening the human spirit (Vol. 8). The Hague, Netherlands: Bernard van leer foundation.
  39. Gupta, R. S., Dickey, L., & Kujawa, A. (2022). Neural markers of emotion regulation difficulties moderate effects of COVID- 19 stressors on adolescent depression. Depression and anxiety, 39(6), 515-523. DOI: 10.1002/da.23268.
  40. Hanson, W. E., Creswell, J. W., Clark, V. L. P., Petska, K. S., & Creswell, J. D. (2005). Mixed methods research designs in counseling psychology. Journal of counseling psychology, 52(2), 224. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.52.2.224.
  41. Hartoyo, A. L., & Wijaya, E. (2022, April). Correlation between Boredom and Meaning of Life in Late Adolescence during the Covid-19 Pandemic. In 3rd Tarumanagara International Conference on the Applications of Social Sciences and Humanities (TICASH 2021) (pp. 1495-1500). Atlantis Press.
  42. IBM Corp. Released 2017. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
  43. Israelashvili, J. (2021). More positive emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with better resilience, especially for those experiencing more negative emotions. Frontiers in Psychology, 12 , 648112. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.648112.
  44. Kazdin, A.E. (2013). Research Design in Clinical Psychology. London: Pearson Education Limited.
  45. Kazi, F., & Mushtaq, A. (2021). Adolescents navigating the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet. Child & Adolescent Health, 5(10), 692. DOI: 10.1016/2FS2352-4642(21)00279-0.
  46. Kuntsche, E., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2015). Monitoring adolescent health behaviours and social determinants cross-nationally over more than a decade: introducing the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study supplement on trends. The European Journal of Public Health, 25(suppl.2), 1-3. DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckv009.
  47. Kurudirek, F., Arıkan, D., & Ekici, S. (2022). Relationship between adolescents’ perceptions of social support and their psychological well-being during COVID-19 Pandemic: A case study from Turkey. Children and Youth Services Review, 137, 106491. DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2022.106491.
  48. Lades, L. K., Laffan, K., Daly, M., & Delaney, L. (2020). Daily emotional well- being during the COVID- 19 pandemic. British journal of health psychology, 25(4), 902-911. DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12450.
  49. Li, F., Luo, S., Mu, W., Li, Y., Ye, L., Zheng, X., ... & Chen, X. (2021). Effects of sources of social support and resilience on the mental health of different age groups during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC psychiatry, 21(1), 1-14. DOI: 10.1186/s12888-020-03012-1.
  50. Lisitsa, E., Benjamin, K. S., Chun, S. K., Skalisky, J., Hammond, L. E., & Mezulis, A. H. (2020). Loneliness among young adults during COVID-19 pandemic: The mediational roles of social media use and social support seeking. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 39(8), 708-726. DOI: 10.1521/jscp.2020.39.8.708.
  51. Luthar, S. S., Sawyer, J. A., & Brown, P. J. (2006). Conceptual issues in studies of resilience: Past, present, and future research. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 105. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1376.009.
  52. Maheux, A. J., Nesi, J., Galla, B. M., Roberts, S. R., & Choukas- Bradley, S. (2021). Grateful: Longitudinal associations between adolescents’ social media use and gratitude during the COVID- 19 pandemic. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 31(3), 734-747. DOI: 10.1111/jora.12650.
  53. McCall, R. B. (1977). Challenges to a science of developmental psychology. Child Development, 333-344. DOI: 10.2307/1128626.
  54. Morin, E. (2000). La testa ben fatta. Riforma dell’insegnamento e riforma del pensiero. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  55. Nickerson, A. B., & Nagle, R. J. (2005). Parent and peer attachment in late childhood and early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 25(2), 223-249. DOI: 10.1177/2F0272431604274174.
  56. Panda, P. K., Gupta, J., Chowdhury, S. R., Kumar, R., Meena, A. K., Madaan, P., ... & Gulati, S. (2021). Psychological and behavioral impact of lockdown and quarantine measures for COVID-19 pandemic on children, adolescents and caregivers: a systematic review and meta-znalysis. Journal of tropical pediatrics, 67(1), fmaa122. DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmaa122.
  57. Paoletti, P. (2008). Crescere nell’eccellenza. Roma: Armando editore.
  58. Paoletti, P., & Ben Soussan, T. D. (2019). The sphere model of consciousness: from geometrical to neuro-psycho-educational perspectives. Logica Universalis, 13(3), 395-415. DOI: 10.1007/s11787-019-00226-0.
  59. Paoletti, P., & Selvaggio, A. (2013). Normalizzazione. Quaderni di Pedagogia per il Terzo Millennio. Edizioni 3P.
  60. Paoletti, P., Di Giuseppe, T., Lillo, C., Anella, S., Santinelli, A. (2022b). Le Dieci Chiavi della Resilienza.
  61. Paoletti, P., Di Giuseppe, T., Lillo, C., Ben-Soussan, T. D., Bozkurt, A., Tabibnia, G., & Perasso, G. F. (2022a). What can we learn from the COVID-19 pandemic? Resilience for the future and neuropsychopedagogical insights. Frontiers in Psychology, 5403. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.993991.
  62. Pavoncello, D., Di Giuseppe, T., Aprile, V., & Paoletti, P. (2013). Giovani tra speranza, fiducia e progettualità. Risultati di una ricerca. Orientamenti pedagogici: rivista internazionale di scienze dellʼeducazione, 60(353), 591-609.
  63. Pedrosa, A. L., Bitencourt, L., Fróes, A. C. F., Cazumbá, M. L. B., Campos, R. G. B., de Brito, S. B. C. S., & Simões e Silva, A. C. (2020). Emotional, behavioral, and psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 566212. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.566212.
  64. Pellerin, N., & Raufaste, E. (2020). Psychological resources protect well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study during the French lockdown. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 590276. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.590276.
  65. Perasso, G., Carone, N., Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Lombardy Group 2014, & Barone, L. (2021). Alcohol consumption in adolescence: the role of adolescentsʼ gender, parental control, and family dinners attendance in an Italian HBSC sample. Journal of Family Studies, 27(4), 621-633. DOI: 10.1080/13229400.2019.1676818.
  66. Perasso, G., Carraro, E., & Ozturk, Y. (2020). Family mealtime against adolescentes' drinking, drug use, and others risk behaviours. Then and now. Health and addictions: salud y drogas, 20(2), 119-134. DOI: 10.21134/haaj.v20i2.540.
  67. Perasso, G., Serantoni, G., Lillo, C., Maculan, A., Vianello, F., & Di Giuseppe, T. (2023). Teaching with What you Are: The Importance of Teachers’ Positive Resources and of the Neuropsychopedagogical Training Envisioning the Future on Adolescents’ Well-Being. A Correlational and Analysis of Variance Study. Human Development - Annual Volume 2023. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.112437.
  68. Pérez-Urrestarazu, L., Kaltsidi, M. P., Nektarios, P. A., Markakis, G., Loges, V., Perini, K., & Fernández-Cañero, R. (2021). Particularities of having plants at home during the confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Urban forestry & urban greening, 59, 126919. DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126919.
  69. Permatasari, N., Ashari, F. R., & Ismail, N. (2021). Contribution of perceived social support (peer, family, and teacher) to academic resilience during COVID-19. Golden Ratio of Social Science and Education, 1(1), 01-12. DOI: 10.52970/grsse.v1i1.94.
  70. Pigaiani, Y., Zoccante, L., Zocca, A., Arzenton, A., Menegolli, M., Fadel, S., ... & Colizzi, M. (2020, November). Adolescent lifestyle behaviors, coping strategies and subjective wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic: an online student survey. Healthcare, 8(4), 472.
  71. Pouso, S., Borja, Á., Fleming, L. E., Gómez-Baggethun, E., White, M. P., & Uyarra, M. C. (2021). Contact with blue-green spaces during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown beneficial for mental health. Science of The Total Environment, 756, 143984. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143984.
  72. Purewal, R., Christley, R., Kordas, K., Joinson, C., Meints, K., Gee, N., & Westgarth, C. (2017). Companion animals and child/adolescent development: A systematic review of the evidence. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(3) , 234. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14030234.
  73. Qi, M., Zhou, S. J., Guo, Z. C., Zhang, L. G., Min, H. J., Li, X. M., & Chen, J. X. (2020). The effect of social support on mental health in Chinese adolescents during the outbreak of COVID-19. Journal of Adolescent Health, 67(4), 514-518. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.07.001.
  74. Quoidbach, J., Berry, E. V., Hansenne, M., & Mikolajczak, M. (2010). Positive emotion regulation and well-being: Comparing the impact of eight savoring and dampening strategies. Personality and individual differences, 49(5), 368-373. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.048.
  75. Rathgeb, C., Schillok, H., Voss, S., Coenen, M., Schulte-Körne, G., Merkel, C., ... & COSMO Study Team. (2022). Emotional Situation of Children and Adolescents during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Germany: Results from the COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring Study (COSMO). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(5) , 2698. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19052698.
  76. Robillard, C. L., Turner, B. J., Ames, M. E., & Craig, S. G. (2021). Deliberate self-harm in adolescents during COVID-19: The roles of pandemic-related stress, emotion regulation difficulties, and social distancing. Psychiatry research, 304, 114152. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114152.
  77. Rogers, A. A., Ha, T., & Ockey, S. (2021). Adolescents’ perceived socioemotional impact of COVID-19 and implications for mental health: Results from a US-based mixed-methods study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 68(1), 43-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.09.039.
  78. Romm, K. F., Park, Y. W., Hughes, J. L., & Gentzler, A. L. (2021). Risk and protective factors for changes in adolescent psychosocial adjustment during COVID- 19. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 31(3), 546-559. DOI: 10.1111/jora.12667.
  79. Santomauro, D. F., Herrera, A. M. M., Shadid, J., Zheng, P., Ashbaugh, C., Pigott, D. M., et al. (2021). Global prevalence and burden of depressive and anxiety disorders in 204 countries and territories in 2020 due to the COVID-1 9 pandemic. Lancet, 398, 1700-1712. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02143-7.
  80. Schunk, F., Zeh, F., & Trommsdorff, G. (2022). Cybervictimization and wellbeing among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: The mediating roles of emotional self-efficacy and emotion regulation. Computers in human behavior, 126, 107035. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2021.107035.
  81. Sharma, A., Minh Duc, N. T., Luu Lam Thang, T., Nam, N. H., Ng, S. J., Abbas, K. S., Huy, N. T., Marušić, A., Paul, C. L., Kwok, J., Karbwang, J., de Waure, C., Drummond, F. J., Kizawa, Y., Taal, E., Vermeulen, J., Lee, G., Gyedu, A., To, K. G., Verra, M. L., … Karamouzian, M. (2021). A Consensus-Based Checklist for Reporting of Survey Studies (CROSS). Journal of General Internal Medicine, 36(10), 3179-3187. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-021-06737-1.
  82. Sheldon, K. M., & King, L. (2001). Why positive psychology is necessary. American psychologist, 56(3), 216. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.216.
  83. Silk, J. S., Scott, L. N., Hutchinson, E. A., Lu, C., Sequeira, S. L., McKone, K. M., ... & Ladouceur, C. D. (2022). Storm clouds and silver linings: day-today life in COVID-19 lockdown and emotional health in adolescent girls. Journal of pediatric psychology, 47(1), 37-48. DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsab107.
  84. Stikkelbroek, Y., Bodden, D. H., Kleinjan, M., Reijnders, M., & van Baar, A. L. (2016). Adolescent depression and negative life events, the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation. PloS one, 11(8), e0161062. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161062.
  85. Tabibnia, G. (2020). An affective neuroscience model of boosting resilience in adults. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 115, 321-350. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.05.005.
  86. Tishelman, C., Degen, J. L., Weiss Goitiandía, S., Kleijberg, M., & Kleeberg-Niepage, A. (2022). A Qualitative Serial Analysis of Drawings by Thirteento Fifteen-Year-Old Adolescents in Sweden About the First Wave of the Covid-19 Pandemic. Qualitative Health Research, May 2022. DOI: 10.1177/2F10497323221101978.
  87. Tong, A., Sainsbury, P., & Craig, J. (2007). Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. International journal for quality in health care: Journal of the International Society for Quality in Health Care, 19(6), 349-357. DOI: 10.1093/intqhc/mzm042.
  88. Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of personality and social psychology, 86(2), 320.
  89. Velez, G., Hahn, M., & Troyer, B. (2022). Making meaning of COVID-19: An exploratory analysis of U.S. adolescent experiences of the pandemic. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 8(2), 269-281. DOI: 10.1037/tps0000326.
  90. Von Soest, T., Kozák, M., Rodríguez-Cano, R., Fluit, D. H., Cortés-García, L., Ulset, V. S., ... & Bakken, A. (2022). Adolescents’ psychosocial well-being one year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway. Nature Human Behaviour, 6(2), 217-228. DOI: 10.1038/s41562-021-01255-w.
  91. Yao, H., Chen, J. -H., and Xu, Y. -F. (2020). Patients with mental health disorders in the COVID-19 epidemic. Lancet Psychiatry. 7, e21. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30090-0.
  92. Young, K. S., Sandman, C. F., & Craske, M. G. (2019). Positive and negative emotion regulation in adolescence: links to anxiety and depression. Brain sciences, 9(4), 76. DOI: 10.3390/brainsci9040076.
  93. Zeman, J., Cassano, M., Perry-Parrish, C., & Stegall, S. (2006). Emotion regulation in children and adolescents. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 27(2), 155-168.
  94. Zhen, R., & Zhou, X. (2022). Latent patterns of posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth among adolescents during the covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 35(1), 197-209. DOI: 10.1002/jts.22720.
  95. Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of personality assessment, 52(1), 30-41. DOI: 10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2.


Caricamento metriche ...