Salta al menu principale di navigazione Salta al contenuto principale Salta al piè di pagina del sito


N. 3 (2022)

Career ToolVip24 effectiveness in enhancing self-efficacy, self-esteem, attitude toward enterprise and entrecomp dimensions in students from different european countries

11 January 2023


School guidance in general terms and, more specifically, school career guidance are effective means for the positive development of students in the academic and personal-social domains, as well as in their approach toward the labor market. Indeed, guidance programs can boost dimensions that play a relevant role in keeping students’ high motivation within the academic context, thus preventing drop-out, ameliorating their academic achievement and orienting them toward their future career. In light of this, the present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of different guidance tools in producing more specific increases in participants’ self-efficacy, self-esteem, attitude toward enterprise and in several EntreComp dimensions. The main focus is on the Career ToolVip24, a career guidance tool developed in Norway. The study, which is part of the European Project Erasmus+ KA2 “Tool VIP24”, was conducted across four European countries (i.e., Germany, Italy, Norway and Poland), involving middle and high school students ranging from the 8th to the 13th grade.
Results indicate how the students participating in the Career ToolVip24, but not the students in the control group nor students participating in other guidance tools, significantly ameliorated in many of the investigated dimensions (including self-efficacy, self-esteem and attitude toward enterprise) at a postintervention evaluation compared to a pre-intervention evaluation.
The implications of the results for students’ attitude toward both the school and the labor market are discussed, together with the limitations of the study and directions for future research.

Riferimenti bibliografici

  1. Adeusi, S. O. (2017). Influence of Guidance and Counseling on Students Motivation and School Adjustment among Covenant University Students, Ogun State. Covenant International Journal of Psychology, 1(2).
  2. Alessandri, G., Caprara, G. V., Eisenberg, N., & Steca, P. (2009). Reciprocal relations among self- efficacy beliefs and prosociality across time. Journal of personality, 77(4), 1229-1259. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00580.x.
  3. Alves-Martins, M., Peixoto, F., Gouveia-Pereira, M., Amaral, V., & Pedro, I. (2002). Self-esteem and academic achievement among adolescents. Educational psychology, 22(1), 51-62. DOI: 10.1080/01443410120101242.
  4. Andersson, A. B. (2021). Social capital and self-efficacy in the process of youth entry into the labour market: Evidence from a longitudinal study in Sweden. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 7. DOI: 10.1016/j.rssm.2020.100580.
  5. Athayde, R. (2009). Measuring enterprise potential in young people. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33, 481-500. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00300.x.
  6. Bacigalupo, M., Kampylis, P., Punie, Y., & Van den Brande, G. (2016). EntreComp: The entrepreneurship competence framework. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 10, 593884. DOI: 10.2791/593884.
  7. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological Review, 84, p.191.
  8. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
  9. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1-26. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1.
  10. Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents, 307-337.
  11. Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Understanding the inner nature of low self-esteem: Uncertain, fragile, protective, and conflicted. In Self-esteem (pp. 201-218). Boston, MA: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4684-8956-9_11.
  12. Batool, S. S. (2020). Academic achievement: Interplay of positive parenting, self- esteem, and academic procrastination. Australian Journal of Psychology, 72(2), 174-187. DOI: 10.1111/ajpy.12280.
  13. Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. M. (1985). Self- esteem and responses to success and failure: Subsequent performance and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality, 53, 450-467. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1985.tb00376.x.
  14. Blascovich, J., Tomaka, J., Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Measures of self-esteem. Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, 1, 115-160.
  15. Booth, M. Z., & Gerard, J. M. (2011). Self-esteem and academic achievement: a comparative study of adolescent students in England and the United States. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 41(5), 629-648. DOI: 10.1080/03057925.2011.566688.
  16. Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio Jr, J. J., & Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts. Washington, D.C.: Civic Enterprises.
  17. Brigman, G., & Campbell, C. (2003). Helping students improve academic achievement and school success behavior. Professional School Counseling, 7(2), 91-98.
  18. Brüne, N., & Lutz, E. (2020). The effect of entrepreneurship education in schools on entrepreneurial outcomes: a systematic review. Management Review Quarterly, 70(2), 275-305. DOI: 10.1007/s11301-019-00168-3.
  19. Cahill, P. T., Ferro, M. A., Campbell, W. N., & Ronen, G. M. (2021). Selfesteem mediates mental health outcomes in young people with epilepsy. Epilepsia, 62(9), 2072-2081. DOI: 10.1111/epi.17006.
  20. Caprara, G. V., Fida, R., Vecchione, M., Del Bove, G., Vecchio, G. M., Barbaranelli, C., & Bandura, A. (2008). Longitudinal analysis of the role of perceived self-efficacy for self-regulated learning in academic continuance and achievement. Journal of educational psychology, 100(3), 525. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.525.
  21. Caprara, M., Di Giunta, L., Bermúdez, J., & Caprara, G. V. (2020). How selfefficacy beliefs in dealing with negative emotions are associated to negative affect and to life satisfaction across gender and age. PloS one, 15(11), e0242326. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242326.
  22. Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of applied psychology, 78(1), 98-104. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.98.
  23. Di Giunta, L., Alessandri, G., Gerbino, M., Kanacri, P. L., Zuffiano, A., & Caprara, G. V. (2013). The determinants of scholastic achievement: The contribution of personality traits, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy. Learning and individual Differences, 27, 102-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2013.07.006.
  24. Donnellan, M. B., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Robins, R. W. (2011). Self-esteem: Enduring issues and controversies. In The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences (First Edition, pp. 718-746). Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell publishing LTD.
  25. European Commission (2006). Entrepreneurship education in Europe: fostering entrepreneurial mindsets through education and learning. The Oslo Agenda for Entrepreneurship Education in Europe.
  26. European Commission (2018). Proposal for a council recommendation on key competences for lifelong learning. Education and Training: Key Competences.
  27. Eurostat (2020a). Early leavers from education and training. [Data file]. Retrieved from
  28. Eurostat (2020b). Continued decline in early school leavers in EU. Retrieved from
  29. Evans Jr, J. H., & Burck, H. D. (1992). The effects of career education interventions on academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling & Development, 71(1). 63-68. DOI: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1992.tb02173.x.
  30. Fetvadjiev, V. H., & van de Vijver, F. J. (2015). Measures of personality across cultures. In Measures of personality and social psychological constructs (pp. 752-776). Academic Press. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-386915-9.00026-7.
  31. Filozof, E. M., Albertin, H. K., Jones, C. R., Steme, S. S., Myers, L., & McDermott, R. J. (1998). Relationship of adolescent self-esteem to selected academic variables. Journal of School Health, 68(2), 68-72. DOI: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.1998.tb07194.x.
  32. Gray-Little, B., Williams, V. S., & Hancock, T. D. (1997). An item response theory analysis of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 23, 443-451. DOI: 10.1177/0146167297235001.
  33. Grace, E. O. E., & Ihuoma, I. H. (2013). Relationship between counselling and entrepreneurship development skills of Nigerian final year undergraduates. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 120-127. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.521.
  34. Hearne, L., & Neary, S. (2021). Let’s talk about career guidance in secondary schools! A consideration of the professional capital of school staff in Ireland and England. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 21(1), 1-14. DOI: 10.1007/s10775-020-09424-5.
  35. Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (Third Edition). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  36. Hooley, T., Sultana, R. G., & Thomsen, R. (2017). The neoliberal challenge to career guidance: Mobilising research, policy and practice around social justice. In Career guidance for social justice (pp. 1-27). London, UK: Routledge.
  37. Hooley, T., & Godden, L. (2021). Theorising career guidance policymaking: watching the sausage get made. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 1-16. DOI: 10.1080/03069885.2021.1948503.
  38. Huber, L. R., Sloof, R., & Van Praag, M. (2014). The effect of early entrepreneurship education: Evidence from a field experiment. European Economic Review, 72, 76-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.euroecorev.2014.09.002.
  39. Hussein, A. (2006). Effect of guidance services on study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement of secondary school students. Bulletin of Education & Research, 28(1), 35-45.
  40. Jung, C.G. (1971). Psychological Types (Baynes, H.G., trans., rev., Hull, R.F.C.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  41. Legum, H. L., & Hoare, C. H. (2004). Impact of a career intervention on at-risk middle school studentsʼ career maturity levels, academic achievement, and self-esteem. Professional School Counseling, 8(2), 148-155.
  42. Manna, G., Falgares, G., Ingoglia, S., Como, M. R., & De Santis, S. (2016). The relationship between self-esteem, depression and anxiety: Comparing vulnerability and scar model in the Italian context. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 4(3).
  43. McCallum, E., McMullan, L., Weicht, R., Kluzer, S., & Punie, Y. (2020). EntreComp at Work. The European Entrepreneurship Competence Framework in action in the labour market: a selection of case studies (No. JRC120486). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. DOI: 10.2760/673856.
  44. Moksnes, U. K., & Espnes, G. A. (2013). Self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents-gender and age as potential moderators. Quality of Life Research, 22(10), 2921-2928. DOI: 10.1007/s11136-013-0427-4.
  45. Moksnes, U. K., & Reidunsdatter, R. J. (2019). Self-esteem and mental health in adolescents-level and stability during a school year. Norsk Epidemiologi, 28(1-2). DOI: 10.5324/nje.v28i1-2.3052.
  46. Myers, I. B., & McCaulley, M. H. (1985). Manual: a guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  47. Murray, J. B. (1990). Review of research on the Myers-Briggs type indicator. Perceptual and Motor skills, 70(3_suppl), 1187-1202. DOI: 10.2466/pms.1990.70.3c.1187.
  48. Neck, H. M., & Greene, P. G. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: known worlds and new frontiers. Journal of Small Business Management, 49, 55-70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-627X.2010.00314.x.
  49. Nguyen, D. T., Wright, E. P., Dedding, C., Pham, T. T., & Bunders, J. (2019). Low self-esteem and its association with anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation in Vietnamese secondary school students: a cross-sectional study. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 698. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00698.
  50. Ogresta, J., Rezo, I., Kožljan, P., Paré, M. H., & Ajduković, M. (2021). Why do we drop out? Typology of dropping out of high school. Youth & society, 53(6), 934-954. DOI: 10.1177/0044118X20918435.
  51. Özmen, S., & Hursen, C. (2020). School guidance services awareness scale (SGSAS): The study of validity and reliability in a sample of Turkish adolescents. Current Psychology, 1-15. DOI: 10.1007/s12144-020-01118-z.
  52. Peñate, W., González-Loyola, M., & Oyanadel, C. (2020). The Predictive Role of Affectivity, Self-Esteem and Social Support in Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 6984. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17196984.
  53. Pitan, O. S., & Atiku, S. O. (2017). Structural determinants of students’ employability: Influence of career guidance activities. South African Journal of Education, 37(4). DOI: 10.15700/saje.v37n4a1424.
  54. Pranoto, H., Atieka, N., Wihardjo, S. D., Wibowo, A., & Nurlaila, S. (2016). Group guidance services with self-regulation technique to improve student learning motivation in Junior High School (JHS). Educational Research and Reviews, 11(24), 2146-2154. DOI: 10.5897/ERR2016.2955.
  55. Rosenberg, M. (1965). The measurement of self-esteem, society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. DOI: 10.1515/9781400876136/html.
  56. Rosenberg, M. (1979). Society and the adolescent self-image: Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Book, inc.
  57. Samuel, R., & Burger, K. (2020). Negative life events, self-efficacy, and social support: Risk and protective factors for school dropout intentions and dropout . Journal of educational psychology, 112(5), 973. DOI: 10.1037/edu0000406.
  58. Schwarzer, R. (1994). Optimism, vulnerability, and self-beliefs as health-related cognitions: A systematic overview. Psychology and health, 9(3), 161-180. DOI: 10.1080/08870449408407475.
  59. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and Control beliefs, 1, 35-37. DOI: 10.1037/t00393-000.
  60. Shimomura, H. (2007). Computer-assisted career guidance and career decisionmaking self-efficacy. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 55(2), 276-286.
  61. Sinclair, S. J., Blais, M. A., Gansler, D. A., Sandberg, E., Bistis, K., & LoCicero, A. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Overall and across demographic groups living within the United States. Evaluation & the Health professions, 33, 56-80. DOI: 10.1177/0163278709356187.
  62. Sowislo, J. F., & Orth, U. (2013). Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological bulletin, 139(1), 213. DOI: 10.1037/a0028931.
  63. Sultana, R. G. (2004). Guidance policies in the knowledge society: trends, challenges and responses across Europe. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
  64. Sultana, R. G. (2009). Career guidance policies: Global dynamics, local resonances. Derby: International Centre for Guidance Studies.
  65. Steenekamp, A. G., van der Merwe, S. P., & Athayde, R. (2011). Application of the Attitude Toward Enterprise (ATE) test on secondary school learners in South Africa. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 14, 314-332. DOI: 10.10520/EJC31352.
  66. Taniguchi, K., & Hirakawa, Y. (2016). School dropout at the basic education level in rural Cambodia: Identifying its causes through longitudinal survival analysis. International Journal of Educational Development, 49, 215-224. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.03.001.
  67. Turner, S. L., & Lapan, R. T. (2005). Evaluation of an intervention to increase non-traditional career interests and career-related self-efficacy among middle-school adolescents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(3), 516-531. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvb.2004.02.005.
  68. United Nations (2015). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015 A/RES/70/1 (United Nations General Assembly, 2015).
  69. Wang, Y., Huebner, E. S., & Tian, L. (2021). Parent-child cohesion, selfesteem, and academic achievement: The longitudinal relations among elementary school students. Learning and Instruction, 73, 101467. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2021.101467.
  70. Whelan, N., McGilloway, S., Murphy, M. P., & McGuinness, C. (2018). EEPIC-Enhancing Employability through Positive Interventions for improving Career potential: the impact of a high support career guidance intervention on the wellbeing, hopefulness, self-efficacy and employability of the long-term unemployed-a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 19(1), 1-18. DOI: 10.1186/s13063-018-2485-y.
  71. Xiong, Q., Fang, X., Wu, Y., Chen, H., Hu, W., & Zhang, Y. (2021). Guidance and counseling relations to high school students’ positive development and psychopathology: A non-recursive modeling study. Current Psychology, 1-11. DOI : 10.1007/s12144-021-01722-7.
  72. Yusop, Y. H. M., Zainudin, Z. N., & Ismail, A. (2018). Effects of Group Guidance Activities On Students’ Self-Concept. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(12). DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i12/5316.
  73. Zein, R., Vignoli, E., Cohen-Scali, V., & Lallemand, N. (2019). Le risque de décrochage scolaire chez des collégiens libanais: le rôle spécifique du sentiment d’efficacité, de l’anxiété et du soutien parental et enseignant?. Pratiques Psychologiques, 25(3), 329-347. DOI: 10.1016/j.prps.2018.08.002.
  74. Zheng, L. R., Atherton, O. E., Trzesniewski, K., & Robins, R. W. (2020). Are self- esteem and academic achievement reciprocally related? Findings from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth. Journal of personality, 88(6), 1058-1074. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12550.


Caricamento metriche ...